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Fall 2002 Course Descriptions

All courses below are approved to be taught in Fall 2002; however, some (or all) may not be offered this term.  The course numbers that are offered this term link to the Schedule of Classes.  The complete list below is a good indicator of what may be offered over the next few years (contact department about offerings).  For explanations of course elements see the Key to Course Descriptions.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (ECOL)  Department Info

ECOL 130 -- Natural History of the Southwest  (3 units)
Description:  Elementary biology of the common plants and animals of the Southwest; identification, distribution, ecology.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 181L -- Introductory Biology Laboratory I  (1 unit)
Description:  Laboratory exercises presenting techniques and fundamental principles of modern biology. Designed to complement the information concurrently presented in 181R.
Prerequisite(s):  or Concurrent registration, MCB 181R.
Identical to:  MCB 181L; MCB is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 181R -- Introductory Biology I  (3-4 units)
Description:  Introduction to the cell and its properties, basic genetics, the immune system, recombinant DNA technology with illustrations from bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Honors section available for 4 units.
Prerequisite(s):  at least Level III placement on the Math Readiness Test; Concurrent registration, MCB 181L (applicable for Fall term only).
Identical to:  MCB 181R; MCB is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 182 -- Introductory Biology II  (4-6 units)
Description:  Origin, diversity and evolution of life; physiology of plants, animals and organ systems; processes of micro and macroevolution; animal behavior and ecology of populations and communities emphasizing biotic interactions and biogeography. Designed for biology majors. LEC 40H is offered for 6 units, and has an additional meeting time for Honors students.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  at least Level III placement on the Math Readiness Test, high school biology recommended.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 182, MIC 182, BIOC 182.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 183 -- Marine Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Survey of the marine environment and its biotic communities, with emphasis on the natural history of marine organisms.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 195A -- Sex and Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  Introduction to evolutionary thinking using the problem of the evolution of sex. Why is the living world sexual? Why has nature settled on this awkward arrangement of males and females (and all that implies), when simple cloning would be so much easier?  This is a First-Year Colloquium Course.

ECOL 195B -- From the Pendulum to the Lynx and the Hare  (1 unit)
Description:  Introduction to non-linear dynamics and chaos. Mathematical content; historical significance; implications for the biological and physical sciences. This course is intended for entry-level students with a passion for mathematics and science. Emphasis on concepts as opposed to algebraic manipulation. Opportunity to study non-linear systems on the computer will be provided.  This is a First-Year Colloquium Course.
Prerequisite(s):  simultaneous enrollment in calculus recommended.
Identical to:  MATH 195B.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 195C -- Society and Science  (1 unit)
Description:  This colloquium is designed to explore contemporary issues faced by society. The focus is on developing the critical-thinking skills necessary to deal with the complex issues arising from modern technology and science. Topics used to illustrate problems and to develop critical thinking skills include: human disease, nutrition, genetic screening, genetic engineering, environmental issues, human behavior and other topics.   This is a First-Year Colloquium Course.
Identical to:  BIOC 195C; BIOC is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 195D -- Darwinian Medicine  (1 unit)
Description:  In this course we will review how the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection can help us understand and treat human disease. We will explore evolutionary explanations to questions such as: Why do parasites harm us? Why do we age? Why do we suffer from allergies or develop cancer? Why do we reproduce sexually? Why do babies cry? Through informal lectures, readings, student presentations, and class discussions students will become exposed to basic evolutionary principles that can be applied not only to medicine, but also to agriculture and other life sciences.  This is a First-Year Colloquium Course.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 199 -- Independent Study  (1-4 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 206 -- Environmental Biology  (4 units)
Description:  Fundamentals of ecology and their relevance to human impact on natural ecosystems. Non-majors orientation.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  two courses from Tier One, Natural Sciences (NATS 101, 102, 104).
Approved as:  General Education Tier Two - Natural Sciences.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 223 -- Human Genetics and Evolution  (4 units)
Description:  This Tier Two biology course focuses on aspects of biology from the perspective of humans and human populations.
Prerequisite(s):  two courses from Tier One, Natural Sciences (NATS 101, 102, 104).
Approved as:  General Education Tier Two - Natural Sciences.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 1 hour discussion.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 299 -- Independent Study  (1-4 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 299H -- Honors Independent Study  (1-3 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 302 -- Ecology  (4 units)
Description:  Single species population biology, competition, predation and mutualism, community and organization, behavioral ecology and evolutionary ecology.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182, MATH 125 or MATH 124, MATH 129.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 303 -- Vertebrate Diversity  (4 units)
Description:  Phylogeny and diversification of the major groups of fishes and tetrapods, and evolution of their diagnostic features and adaptations.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182 or equivalent.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 308 -- Paleontology  (3 units)
Description:  Basic principles and concepts; morphology and classification of fossils; their occurrence, distribution, geologic and evolutionary significance.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  GEOS 251.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  GEOS 308; GEOS is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 320 -- Genetics  (4 units)
Description:  The principles that govern the inheritance of all living organisms including molecular, chromosomal, organismal, population and evolutionary aspects of genetics. Extensive problem solving required.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 181R ECOL 181L, ECOL 182, CHEM 103B, CHEM 104B.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 320.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 320H -- Genetics  (5 units)
Description:  The principles that govern the inheritance of all living organisms including molecular, chromosomal, organismal, population and evolutionary aspects of genetics. Extensive problem solving required.
Identical to:  MCB 320H.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 321 -- Genetics Lab  (2 units)
Description:  Laboratory principles and techniques that govern genetic analysis, including molecular, chromosomal, organismal, population, and evolutionary aspects.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 181R, ECOL 181L , ECOL 182.
Typical structure:  1 hour lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 321.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 335 -- Evolutionary Biology  (4 units)
Description:  Basic processes and patterns of evolution: natural selection, evolutionary genetics, the analysis of adaptation, the phylogeny of life, the fossil record, molecular evolution, macroevolution. Mandatory discussion session to meet once per week.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 181R, ECOL 181L, ECOL 182.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 340 -- Introductory Physiological Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  The diversity in the interaction between the way organisms are put together ("form") and how they work ("function") in response to environmental challenges. The physiological mechanisms responsible for the flow and transformation of energy and materials within organisms and among organisms framed in the larger context of ecological processes.
Prerequisite(s):  MCB 181R, MCB 181L, ECOL182.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 380 -- Math Models In Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Introduction to mathematical techniques in the biological sciences. Applications include biochemistry, physiology, and ecology.
Prerequisite(s):  MATH 129 or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  MATH 380.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 380L -- Math Models in Biology Lab  (1 unit)
Description:  Lab will be designed to allow students to wed theory and experimentation in the development and exploration of mathematical models in biology.
Prerequisite(s):  MATH 129 or consent of instructor; Concurrent registration, ECOL 380.
Identical to:  MATH 380L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 392 -- Directed Research  (1-6 units)
Description:  Individual or small group research under the guidance of faculty.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for a total of 12 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 396A -- Conservation Biology Internship Proseminar  (2 units)
Description:  This is the first of a four course sequence designed for student participating in our Conservation Biology Internship Program. Students will learn to bridge the gap between basic and applied research in conservation biology.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 396B -- Conservation Biology Internship Seminar II  (2 units)
Description:  This is the second of a four course sequence designed for students participating in our Conservation Biology Internship Program. This seminar will take an academic treatment of the life science disciplines that impact conservation biology.
Prerequisite(s):  admittance to Conservation Biology Internship Program.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 396F -- The Research Experience  (1 unit)
Description:  A seminar course for transfer students from a community college who are doing science or engineering research as part of a research internship. Students will learn to analyze and present the results of their research, and hear the experience of others in diverse research settings. The culture of science research will be discussed in the context of strategies to encourage the success of women and people of diverse ethnicities in science professions. Prerequisites: must be conducting science research as part of an undergraduate research internship (e.g., Futurebound).
Prerequisite(s):  Be conducting research as part of an undergraduate research internship.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  W S 396F.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 396H -- Honors Proseminar  (3 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 399 -- Independent Study  (1-4 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 399H -- Honors Independent Study  (1-3 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 401 -- Teaching Biology  (2 units)
Description:  Study of new methods in instruction and ideas on course content and behavioral objectives. Designed for prospective bio. teachers in secondary schools.
Prerequisite(s):  12 units of biology.
Typical structure:  1 hour lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
May be convened with:  ECOL 501.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 403L -- Parasitology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Parasite morphology and diagnostic laboratory techniques.
Prerequisite(s):  12 units of biology and microbiology.
Identical to:  V SC 403L; V SC is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 403R -- Biology of Animal Parasites  (3 units)
Description:  Biology of host-parasite relationships with emphasis on parasites of veterinary and human importance. Parasite morphology and physiology, life cycles, epidemiology, pathogenesis and zoonotic potential.
Prerequisite(s):  12 units of biology or microbiology.
Identical to:  V SC 403R; V SC is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 404 -- Physiological Systems  (3 units)
Description:  Comparison of the diversity of ways that invertebrates and vertebrates develop to meet their common physiological problems and a detailed examination of well studied examples.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; ECOL 182, MCB 181R, MCB 181L, course in biochemistry suggested.
Identical to:  INSC 404, ENTO 404, BIOC 404.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 405 -- Aquatic Entomology  (4 units)
Description:  Morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations of insects to life in water; taxonomy and ecology of aquatic insects.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  ENTO 405; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 505.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 406L -- Conservation Biology in the Field  (1 unit)
Description:  Problem-solving, discussion, and field trips (binoculars required).
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 406R.
Identical to:  GEOS 406L, RNR 406L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 506L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 406R -- Conservation Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Biological principles applied to protection and recovery of threatened and endangered species and the processes whtich link species in natural ecosystems. Biological basis for conservation laws and regulations. Distribution, valuation and sustainable production of biodiversity benefits for humanity.   This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; ECOL 182, ECOL 302; Concurrent registration, ECOL 406R.
Identical to:  GEOS 406R, RNR 406R.
May be convened with:  ECOL 506R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 411 -- Insect Behavior  (4 units)
Description:  Survey of the behavioral solutions to ecological problems employed by insects and other terrestrial arthropods. Emphasis on patterns highly developed or uniquely expressed in the insects such as social behavior, chemical communication, diet choice, pollination ecology, and parasitoid host finding. Evolutionary perspective, models, and theory. Student research exercises and projects.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  ENTO 411; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 511.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 414 -- Plants of the Desert  (2 units)
Description:  Designed for teachers and others wishing to become familiar with common native and cultivated plants; identification, ecology, and uses.
May be convened with:  ECOL 514.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 415L -- Insect Biology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Survey of insect diversity through identification and classification.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182.
Identical to:  ENTO 415L; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 415M -- Insect Biology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Survey of insect diversity through morphology and anatomy.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182.
Identical to:  ENTO 415M; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 515M.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 415R -- Insect Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Insects and other land arthropods, their functional anatomy, perception of the environment, relationships to other animals and plants. Insect classification and taxonomy to order and major families.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182.
Identical to:  ENTO 415R; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 515R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 416 -- Bioinformatics and Genomic Analysis  (3 units)
Description:  Analysis of genome sequences for function using local and internet computer resources. Consult instructor for appropriate prerequisites before enrolling.
Prerequisite(s):  consult instructor for prerequisites before enrolling.
Typical structure:  1 hour lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 416; MCB is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 516.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 421 -- Philosophy of the Biological Sciences  (3 units)
Description:  Laws and models in biology, structure of evolutionary theory, teleological explanations, reductionism, sociobiology.
Identical to:  PHIL 421; PHIL is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 521.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 424 -- Theoretical Population Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Mathematical theory of modern population genetics developed from first principles with emphasis on evolutionary implications and the historical development of ideas.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320, MATH 223.
Identical to:  INSC 424, GENE 424, ANTH 424.
May be convened with:  ECOL 524.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 426 -- Population Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  General introductory course on empirical and theoretical population genetics. It will involve two weekly lectures, weekly problem sets, and regular readings from the primary literature. A major goal of this course is to make students familiar with basic models of population genetics and to acquaint students with empirical tests of these models. As much as any field of biology, population genetics has been divided into a theoretical and an empirical branch. However, these two bodies of knowledge are intimately related and this course will cover both in roughly equal amounts. We will discuss the primary forces and processes involved in shaping genetic variation in natural populations (mutation, drift, selection, migration, recombination, mating patterns, population size and population subdivision), methods of measuring genetic variation in nature, and experimental tests of important ideas in population genetics. The course will also cover a few more specialized topics such as transposable elements, the evolution of multigene families, and molecular clocks.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182, ECOL 335; ECOL 320 or PL S 312.
Identical to:  GENE 426.
May be convened with:  ECOL 526.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 428 -- Microbial Genetics  (5 units)
Description:  Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; SWES 325 or ECOL 320 or PL S 312.
Identical to:  PL P 428; PL P is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 428L -- Microbial Genetics Laboratory  (2 units)
Description:  Laboratory associated with lecture course on Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages.   This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; ECOL 320, PL S 312 and PL P 428R.
Identical to:  PL P 428L; PL P is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 428L.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 428R -- Microbial Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages.   This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement.
Identical to:  PL P 428R; PL P is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 528R.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 429 -- Population Interactions  (3-4 units)
Description:  Empirical and theoretical treatment of competition, exploitation, and mutualism within and between species, with emphasis on application of modern dynamics to ecological problems.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 302, two semesters of calculus.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 529.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 433 -- Human Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Genetic theory and technique, as applied to man; methods of analysis of genetically determined cytological and biochemical differences in individuals and populations.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  GENE 433; GENE is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 533.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 435 -- Evolution II  (4 units)
Description:  A thorough coverage of the empirical and theoretical foundations of modern evolutionary thought. The heart of the course is the theoretical, experimental, and analytical logic necessary to understand processes of evolutionary change at several levels of biological organization. The course is most appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students intending to pursue advanced study and research involving evolutionary questions in biology.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320 or ECOL 335.
Identical to:  GENE 435.
May be convened with:  ECOL 535.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 437 -- Vertebrate Physiology  (4 units)
Description:  Basic principles of vertebrate physiology dealing particularly with physiological homeostasis maintained by interactions of complex organ systems.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; ECOL 181R, ECOL 181L, ECOL 182, one semester of organic chemistry. Genetics and biochemistry suggested.
Identical to:  MCB 437, V SC 437.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 438 -- Biogeography  (3 units)
Description:  The role of historical events and ecological processes in determining the past and present geographic distribution of plants and animals.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182.
Identical to:  GEOS 438, GEOG 438.
May be convened with:  ECOL 538.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 442 -- Marine Ecology  (6 units)
Description:  A field introduction to basic concepts in marine ecology with emphasis on the behavior and ecology of invertebrates and fishes and the factors affecting the diversity and community structure of marine communities. The entire course is conducted at selected sites in the Gulf of California.
May be convened with:  ECOL 542.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 450 -- Marine Discovery  (4 units)
Description:  Participate in this marine biology outreach program for grades 3-8. Undergraduates do all of the instruction in on-campus, inquiry-based workshops featuring marine diversity and conservation with a focus on the nearby Sea of Cortez. You will gain experience in developing your own teaching style, while learning about marine biology.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; ECOL 182 or ECOL 183.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 453L -- Functional and Evolutionary Genomics - Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Computational, functional, and evolutionary approaches to genomics, including bioinformatics and laboratory methods.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 453R.
Identical to:  BIOC 453L, MCB 453L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 553L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 453R -- Functional and Evolutionary Genomics  (3 units)
Description:  Computational, functional, and evolutionary approaches to genomics, including bioinformatics and laboratory methods.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 453L, registration by permission only.
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 2 hours lecture.
Identical to:  BIOC 453R, MCB 453R.
May be convened with:  ECOL 553R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 465 -- Phylogenetic Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Concepts in phylogenetic biology, focusing on the phylogenetic (evolutionary) tree of species. The form of the tree, character evolution, speciation, and gene trees.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320, ECOL 435; ECOL 476B or GEOS 476A or other course in evolution, or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  GEOS 465, ENTO 465.
May be convened with:  ECOL 565.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 466 -- Physiology Laboratory  (3 units)
Description:  Emphasis on data acquisition, analysis and interpretation. Laboratory techniques and investigation of physiological mechanisms.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 437 and ECOL 468 or PSIO 480.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 4 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 466, PCOL 466, PSIO 466.
May be convened with:  ECOL 566.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 468 -- Comparative Physiology  (3 units)
Description:  The responses of physiological systems to the environment; energy exchanges, respiration, thermal and osmotic regulation, locomotion, behavioral regulation, and integration of responses.
Prerequisite(s):  PSIO 480 or ECOL 437.
Identical to:  V SC 468, PSIO 468.
May be convened with:  ECOL 568.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 470 -- Plant Diversity and Evolution  (4 units)
Description:  Survey of the plant kingdom, with emphasis on comparative structure and evolution of major plant divisions.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  4 units of biological or plant sciences.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
May be convened with:  ECOL 570.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 472 -- Systematic Botany  (4 units)
Description:  Evolutionary relationships and characteristics of seed plants: systems of classification; acquisition of skills to identify members of almost 50 families, collection and identification of local flora.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  PL S 472.
May be convened with:  ECOL 572.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 473 -- Topics in Behavioral Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  Theory and practice of behavioral ecology. Focuses on the ecology and evolution of animal behavior. Analytical and critical approach to frontier issues and techniques in behavioral research.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be convened with:  ECOL 573.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 474 -- Aquatic Plants and the Environment  (4 units)
Description:  The role of riparian areas, estuaries, and constructed wetlands in the environment. Emphasis on plants as wildlife habitat for nutrient cycling and bioremediation.
Identical to:  SWES 474; SWES is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 574.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 475 -- Freshwater and Marine Algae  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of planktonic and benthic species; field techniques and lab culture.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; 4 units of biological or plant sciences.
Identical to:  SWES 475, WFSC 475.
May be convened with:  ECOL 575.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 476A -- Analysis of Biological Diversification  (3 units)
Description:  Patterns of biological diversity and the history of diversification and extinction. Phylogenetic analysis will be introduced to address issues in ecology, paleobiology, development and genetics.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; ECOL 181R, ECOL 182; either an evolution or paleobiology course or consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  GEOS 476A; GEOS is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 576A.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 476B -- Analysis of Biological Diversification  (3 units)
Description:  Explores approaches to studying biological diversification, integrating phylogenetic biology, ecology, population genetics, developmental biology and molecular biology.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 335 or consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  MCB 476B, GEOS 476B.
May be convened with:  ECOL 576B.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 478 -- Global Change  (3 units)
Description:  Analysis of the entire Earth system through an examination of how its component parts and their interactions have changed in the past and may be expected to change in the future.
Prerequisite(s):  upper-division standing, introductory course work in biological and physical sciences.
Identical to:  GEOS 478; GEOS is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 578.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 479 -- Art of Scientific Discovery  (3 units)
Description:  Techniques of posing questions and solving puzzles encountered in scientific research, with emphasis on life sciences and mathematics.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 579.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 480 -- Invertebrate Zoology  (4 units)
Description:  Comparative morphology, physiology, and ecology of invertebrates.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
May be convened with:  ECOL 580.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 482 -- Ichthyology  (4 units)
Description:  Ecology, evolution and systematics of fishes, with field and lab emphasis on Gulf of California and Arizona fishes.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; ECOL 182.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  WFSC 482.
May be convened with:  ECOL 582.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 483 -- Herpetology  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of the amphibians and reptiles.
Identical to:  WFSC 483.
May be convened with:  ECOL 583.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 484 -- Ornithology  (4 units)
Description:  Natural history of birds and its bearing upon the problems of animal behavior, distribution, and evolution.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; one basic biology course.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 2 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  WFSC 484.
May be convened with:  ECOL 584.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 485 -- Mammalogy  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of mammals.   This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement.
Identical to:  WFSC 485.
May be convened with:  ECOL 585.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 487L -- Animal Behavior Lab  (1 unit)
Description:  Exposure to current topics in behavior and process of behavioral research through video presentations, demonstrations of live animals and readings.
May be convened with:  ECOL 587L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 487R -- Animal Behavior  (3 units)
Description:  Concepts and principles of the mechanism, development, function and evolution of behavior, with emphasis on its adaptiveness.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Prerequisite(s):  satisfaction of the upper-division writing proficiency requirement; 8 units of biology.
May be convened with:  ECOL 587R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 488 -- Arizona Mammals  (4 units)
Description:  The distribution, ecology, relative abundance, conservation, politics and management implications of the mammals of Arizona.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182 or equivalent.
Identical to:  WFSC 488.
May be convened with:  ECOL 588.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 489 -- Selected Studies of Birds  (2 units)
Description:  Recent advances in ornithology.
Typical structure:  1 hour lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  WFSC 489.
May be convened with:  ECOL 589.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 492 -- Directed Research  (1-6 units)
Description:  Individual or small group research under the guidance of faculty.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for a total of 12 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 496A -- Conservation Biology Internship Advanced Seminar I  (2 units)
Description:  This is the third of a four course sequence designed for students participating in our Conservation Biology Internship Program. This seminar will be a critical assessment of students research, with a treatment of experimental design.
Prerequisite(s):  acceptance into Conservation Biology Internship Program.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496C -- Conservation Biology Internship Advanced Seminar II  (2 units)
Description:  This is the fourth of a four course sequence designed for students participating in our Conservation Biology Internship Program. This seminar will focus on analysis and presentation of research results, with an emphasis on publication.
Prerequisite(s):  acceptance into Conservation Biology Internship Program.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 496I -- Cooperation and Conflict in Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  [Taught alternate years beginning Spring 2000] Basic theory of cooperation and conflict from population genetics and game theory point of view within the context of the origin of sex and transitions between evolutionary units.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  ANTH 496I, GENE 496I.
May be convened with:  ECOL 596I.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496J -- Plant Population Ecology  (1-3 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Prerequisite(s):  some introductory botany, ecology and consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for a total of 18 units of credit.
May be convened with:  ECOL 596J.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496K -- Topics in Plant Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Prerequisite(s):  evolution course or consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 596K.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 496N -- Non-Linear Dynamics of Biological Systems  (2-4 units)
Description:  Non-linear dynamics of biological systems with applications in biochemistry, ecology, epidemiology, and molecular biology. Student/faculty presentations, opportunity for independent projects.
Prerequisite(s):  two semester of calculus, consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 4 times (maximum 5 enrollments).
Identical to:  BIOC 496N, MATH 496N, MCB 496N.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496R -- Species Diversity  (2 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
May be convened with:  ECOL 596R.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496Y -- Modeling in Biology  (2 units)
Description:  An elementary introduction to the use of simple analytical mathematical models in biology. Its intended audience is students who wish to learn how to use and/or construct mathematical models but have forgotten or have never learned how to use mathematics as a language. The course will be elementary and introductory and is conceived as a bridge to more advanced mathematics and modeling courses. We will meet once a week for 2 hours. Students should expect to spend a significant amount of time working on problem sets (approximately 3 hours per week).
May be convened with:  ECOL 596Y.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 497A -- Undergraduate Teaching Training in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology  (1-5 units)
Description:  The practical application of theoretical learning within a group setting and involving an exchange of ideas and practical methods, skills, and principles.
Prerequisite(s):  consult department before enrolling.
May be repeated:  for a total of 12 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 498 -- Senior Capstone  (1-3 units)
Description:  A culminating experience for majors involving a substantive project that demonstrates a synthesis of learning accumulated in the major, including broadly comprehensive knowledge of the discipline and its methodologies. Senior standing required.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 498H -- Honors Thesis  (3 units)
Description:  An honors thesis is required of all the students graduating with honors. Students ordinarily sign up for this course as a two-semester sequence. The first semester the student performs research under the supervision of a faculty member; the second semester the student writes an honors thesis.
May be repeated:  for a total of 9 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 499 -- Independent Study  (1-5 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 499H -- Honors Independent Study  (1-3 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 500A -- Topics in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology  (2-3 units)
Description:  Introduction to graduate study in ecology and evolutionary biology, via discussion of ongoing faculty research interests.
Identical to:  INSC 500A.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 500B -- Topics in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Introduction to field research methods in ecology.
Identical to:  INSC 500B.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 501 -- Teaching Biology  (2 units)
Description:  Study of new methods in instruction and ideas on course content and behavioral objectives. Designed for prospective bio. teachers in secondary schools. Graduate-level requirements include the design and presentation of a unique and challenging laboratory experience appropriate for a secondary school biology course.
May be convened with:  ECOL 401.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 503L -- Parasitology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Parasite morphology and diagnostic laboratory techniques. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper dealing with the differential diagnostic techniques used to identify a single parasite species.
Identical to:  V SC 503L; V SC is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 403L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 503R -- Biology of Animal Parasites  (3 units)
Description:  Biology of host-parasite relationships with emphasis on parasites of veterinary and human importance. Parasite morphology and physiology, life cycles, epidemiology, pathogenesis and zoonotic potential. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper on the molecular biology/immune response of a single parasite.
Identical to:  V SC 503R; V SC is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 403R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 505 -- Aquatic Entomology  (4 units)
Description:  Morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations of insects to life in water; taxonomy and ecology of aquatic insects. Graduate-level requirements include an original research or review paper on some aspect of aquatic entomology agreed upon by the student and the professor.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  ENTO 505; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 506L -- Conservation Biology in the Field  (1 unit)
Description:  Problem-solving, discussion, and field trips (binoculars required). Graduate-level requirements include participation as team leaders. Two 3-day weekend trips March-April. Binoculars required.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  GEOS 506L, RNR 506L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 406L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 506R -- Conservation Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Biological principles applied to protection and recovery of threatened and endangered species and the processes whtich link species in natural ecosystems. Biological basis for conservation laws and regulations. Distribution, valuation and sustainable production of biodiversity benefits for humanity. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper.
Identical to:  GEOS 506R, RNR 506R.
May be convened with:  ECOL 406R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 511 -- Insect Behavior  (4 units)
Description:  Survey of the behavioral solutions to ecological problems employed by insects and other terrestrial arthropods. Emphasis on patterns highly developed or uniquely expressed in the insects such as social behavior, chemical communication, diet choice, pollination ecology, and parasitoid host finding. Evolutionary perspective, models, and theory. Student research exercises and projects. Graduate-level requirements include a written literature review and oral presentation of a selected topic.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  ENTO 511; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 514 -- Plants of the Desert  (2 units)
Description:  Designed for teachers and others wishing to become familiar with common native and cultivated plants; identification, ecology, and uses. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper on a relevant topic.
May be convened with:  ECOL 414.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 515L -- Insect Biology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Survey of insect diversity through identification and classification. Graduate-level requirements include making a larger insect collection.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182.
Identical to:  ENTO 515L; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 515M -- Insect Biology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Survey of insect diversity through morphology and anatomy. Graduate-level requirements include an additional lab project will be required.
Identical to:  ENTO 515M; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 415M.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 515R -- Insect Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Insects and other land arthropods, their functional anatomy, perception of the environment, relationships to other animals and plants. Insect classification and taxonomy to order and major families. Graduate-level requirements include submission of reports on landmark papers in insect biology.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182.
Identical to:  ENTO 515R; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 415R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 516 -- Bioinformatics and Genomic Analysis  (3 units)
Description:  Analysis of genome sequences for function using local and internet computer resources. Consult instructor for appropriate prerequisites before enrolling. Graduate-level requirement include a research project, written report, and a class presentation.
Typical structure:  1 hour lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 516; MCB is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 416.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 517 -- Insect Systematics  (3 units)
Description:  Principles and methods of insect systematics. A review of the evolution of insects, with an emphasis on their phylogenetic relationships. Practice in identification of adult and immature insects, especially those from Arizona.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  ENTO 517; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 518 -- Laboratory Methods in Insect Physiology  (3 units)
Description:  Modern methods of laboratory investigations of the physiology, neurobiology, toxicology, biochemistry, and the molecular biology of insects.
Prerequisite(s):  ENTO 515R or ENTO 515L or ENTO 515M.
Identical to:  INSC 518; INSC is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 521 -- Philosophy of the Biological Sciences  (3 units)
Description:  Laws and models in biology, structure of evolutionary theory, teleological explanations, reductionism, sociobiology. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper on a central theme or topic of the course.
Identical to:  PHIL 521; PHIL is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 421.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 524 -- Theoretical Population Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Mathematical theory of modern population genetics developed from first principles with emphasis on evolutionary implications and the historical development of ideas. Graduate-level requirements include an oral presentation.
Identical to:  ANTH 524, INSC 524, GENE 524.
May be convened with:  ECOL 424.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 525 -- Speciation  (2 units)
Description:  [Taught alternate years 1999 - 2000] Mechanisms of evolution in the formation of races and species of animals and plants.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  GENE 525.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 526 -- Population Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  General introductory course on empirical and theoretical population genetics. It will involve two weekly lectures, weekly problem sets, and regular readings from the primary literature. A major goal of this course is to make students familiar with basic models of population genetics and to acquaint students with empirical tests of these models. As much as any field of biology, population genetics has been divided into a theoretical and an empirical branch. However, these two bodies of knowledge are intimately related and this course will cover both in roughly equal amounts. We will discuss the primary forces and processes involved in shaping genetic variation in natural populations (mutation, drift, selection, migration, recombination, mating patterns, population size and population subdivision), methods of measuring genetic variation in nature, and experimental tests of important ideas in population genetics. The course will also cover a few more specialized topics such as transposable elements, the evolution of multigene families, and molecular clocks. Graduate-level requirements include additional exam questions, additional readings from the literature, and presentation of a 15 minute overview and synthesis of a specialized topic in population genetics.
Identical to:  GENE 526.
May be convened with:  ECOL 426.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 528L -- Microbial Genetics Laboratory  (2 units)
Description:  Laboratory associated with lecture course on Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages. Graduate-level requirements include the DNA sequence of an entire operon from any one of a variety of bacteria and additionally analyze one product from the operon using several GCG protein analysis programs. Also extra exam questions.
Identical to:  PL P 528L; PL P is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 528R -- Microbial Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages. Graduate-level requirements include a DNA sequence of an entire operon from any one of a variety of bacteria and additionally analyze one product from the operon using several GCG protein analysis programs. An extensive exam.
Identical to:  PL P 528R; PL P is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 428R.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 529 -- Population Interactions  (3-4 units)
Description:  Empirical and theoretical treatment of competition, exploitation, and mutualism within and between species, with emphasis on application of modern dynamics to ecological problems. Graduate-level requirements include independent study of a model or data ecological system to be specified by the professor. Please see syllabus.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 429.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 533 -- Human Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Genetic theory and technique, as applied to man; methods of analysis of genetically determined cytological and biochemical differences in individuals and populations. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper on a current problem in human genetics.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320 or ECOL 321.
Identical to:  GENE 533; GENE is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 433.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 535 -- Evolution II  (4 units)
Description:  A thorough coverage of the empirical and theoretical foundations of modern evolutionary thought. The heart of the course is the theoretical, experimental, and analytical logic necessary to understand processes of evolutionary change at several levels of biological organization. The course is most appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students intending to pursue advanced study and research involving evolutionary questions in biology. Graduate-level requirements include two term papers, the subject to be determined by the professor.
Identical to:  GENE 535.
May be convened with:  ECOL 435.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 538 -- Biogeography  (3 units)
Description:  The role of historical events and ecological processes in determining the past and present geographic distribution of plants and animals. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 541 -- Limnology  (4 units)
Description:  Study of lakes and streams; biological characteristics, as related to physical, chemical, geological, and historical processes operating on fresh waters. Graduate-level requirements include a report that synthesizes literature on a research issue of current concern, an in-class presentation and several discussion meetings.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  WFSC 541; WFSC is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 542 -- Marine Ecology  (6 units)
Description:  A field introduction to basic concepts in marine ecology with emphasis on the behavior and ecology of invertebrates and fishes and the factors affecting the diversity and community structure of marine communities. The entire course is conducted at selected sites in the Gulf of California. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research project on a single aspect of the course topic. Optional travel fee.
May be convened with:  ECOL 442.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 544 -- Insect Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  The study of how variation in the environment, interactions with other species and the special features of insect "design," have determined the evolution of diverse insect life histories, the dynamics of insect population and the roles of insects in communities.
Identical to:  ENTO 544; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 545 -- Concepts in Genetic Analysis  (3 units)
Description:  Methods of genetic analysis including mutant isolation, genetic and physical mapping, reverse genetics, evolutionary mechanisms, molecular variation and genomic evolution.
Prerequisite(s):  introductory undergraduate genetics course or biology course.
Identical to:  MCB 545; MCB is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 550 -- Mathematical Population Dynamics  (4 units)
Description:  Ecological population dynamics, demography and human epidemiology. Emphasis on mathematical models and techniques for data analysis with particular reference to dynamical systems and chaos.
Prerequisite(s):  ordinary differential equations as MATH 254 or MATH 355, full calculus sequence, upper-division ecology course (ECOL 302).
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MATH 550.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 553L -- Functional and Evolutionary Genomics - Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Computational, functional, and evolutionary approaches to genomics, including bioinformatics and laboratory methods. Graduate-level requirements include completion of independently designed lab exercises and relating them to the primary literature in a paper.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 553R.
Identical to:  BIOC 553L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 453L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 553R -- Functional and Evolutionary Genomics  (3 units)
Description:  Computational, functional, and evolutionary approaches to genomics, including bioinformatics and laboratory methods. Graduate students will complete independently designed lab exercises and relate these to the primary literature in a paper. Undergraduate students will only complete defined lab exercises.
Prerequisite(s):  ,Concurrent registration in ECOL 553L for first year IGERT fellows.
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 2 hours lecture.
Identical to:  BIOC 553R.
May be convened with:  ECOL 453R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 565 -- Phylogenetic Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Concepts in phylogenetic biology, focusing on the phylogenetic (evolutionary) tree of species. The form of the tree, character evolution, speciation, and gene trees. Graduate-level requirements include a more in-depth term paper.
Identical to:  GEOS 565, ENTO 565.
May be convened with:  ECOL 465.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 566 -- Physiology Laboratory  (3 units)
Description:  Emphasis on data acquisition, analysis and interpretation. Laboratory techniques and investigation of physiological mechanisms. Graduate-level requirements include students completing a series of directed laboratory exercises, then designing and carrying out an experiment of their own.
Identical to:  PCOL 566, MCB 566, PSIO 566, V SC 566.
May be convened with:  ECOL 466.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 568 -- Comparative Physiology  (3 units)
Description:  The responses of physiological systems to the environment; energy exchanges, respiration, thermal and osmotic regulation, locomotion, behavioral regulation, and integration of responses. Graduate-level requirements include an additional literature review paper on a modern aspect of comparative physiology.
Identical to:  PSIO 568, V SC 568.
May be convened with:  ECOL 468.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 570 -- Plant Diversity and Evolution  (4 units)
Description:  Survey of the plant kingdom, with emphasis on comparative structure and evolution of major plant divisions. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper on a relevant topic.
May be convened with:  ECOL 470.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 572 -- Systematic Botany  (4 units)
Description:  Evolutionary relationships and characteristics of seed plants: systems of classification; acquisition of skills to identify members of almost 50 families, collection and identification of local flora. Graduate-level requirements include study of additional plant families and increased depth regarding class project.
Identical to:  PL S 572.
May be convened with:  ECOL 472.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 573 -- Topics in Behavioral Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  Theory and practice of behavioral ecology. Focuses on the ecology and evolution of animal behavior. Analytical and critical approach to frontier issues and techniques in behavioral research. Graduate-level requirements include different exams in both number and difficulty. Graduate student discussion group leaders will be graded.
May be convened with:  ECOL 473.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 574 -- Aquatic Plants and the Environment  (4 units)
Description:  The role of riparian areas, estuaries, and constructed wetlands in the environment. Emphasis on plants as wildlife habitat for nutrient cycling and bioremediation. Graduate-level requirements include an additional research project and class presentation.
Identical to:  SWES 574; SWES is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 474.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 575 -- Freshwater and Marine Algae  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of planktonic and benthic species; field techniques and lab culture. Graduate-level requirements include a special topic report on an aspect of freshwater algae.
Identical to:  WFSC 575, SWES 575.
May be convened with:  ECOL 475.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 576A -- Analysis of Biological Diversification  (3 units)
Description:  Patterns of biological diversity and the history of diversification and extinction. Phylogenetic analysis will be introduced to address issues in ecology, paleobiology, development and genetics. Graduate-level requirements include a term paper based on original research.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  GEOS 576A; GEOS is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 476A.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 576B -- Analysis of Biological Diversification  (3 units)
Description:  Explores approaches to studying biological diversification, integrating phylogenetic biology, ecology, population genetics, developmental biology and molecular biology. Graduate-level requirements include exploration of the literature to supply a bibliography to the class.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  MCB 576B, GEOS 576B.
May be convened with:  ECOL 476B.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 578 -- Global Change  (3 units)
Description:  Analysis of the entire Earth system through an examination of how its component parts and their interactions have changed in the past and may be expected to change in the future. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper on a topic selected by the student and instructor.
Identical to:  GEOS 578; GEOS is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 478.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 579 -- Art of Scientific Discovery  (3 units)
Description:  Techniques of posing questions and solving puzzles encountered in scientific research, with emphasis on life sciences and mathematics. Graduate-level requirements include use of all techniques in a semester-long research project and final paper.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 479.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 580 -- Invertebrate Zoology  (4 units)
Description:  Comparative morphology, physiology, and ecology of invertebrates. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research project on a modern aspect of invertebrate zoology.
May be convened with:  ECOL 480.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 581 -- Advanced Topics in Biological Statistics  (3 units)
Description:  Advanced topics in statistical methodology relevant to Biology, Genetics and Ecology. Maximum likelihood, General Linear models, randomization methods, power, distribution theory.
Prerequisite(s):  basic course in statistics and/or matrix algebra.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 582 -- Ichthyology  (4 units)
Description:  Ecology, evolution and systematics of fishes, with field and lab emphasis on Gulf of California and Arizona fishes. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research project on a single aspect of the course topic.
Identical to:  WFSC 582.
May be convened with:  ECOL 482.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 583 -- Herpetology  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of the amphibians and reptiles. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth paper.
Identical to:  WFSC 583.
May be convened with:  ECOL 483.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 584 -- Ornithology  (4 units)
Description:  Natural history of birds and its bearing upon the problems of animal behavior, distribution, and evolution. An independent research project.
Identical to:  WFSC 584.
May be convened with:  ECOL 484.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 585 -- Mammalogy  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of mammals. Graduate-level requirements include an exercise in mammalian taxonomy and a higher level of performance.
Identical to:  WFSC 585.
May be convened with:  ECOL 485.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 586 -- Biological Scaling  (2-3 units)
Description:  Evolution of body size and the scaling of physiological, morphological, and ecological requirements, biomechanics, functional morphology, and dimensional analysis.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 302.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 587L -- Animal Behavior Lab  (1 unit)
Description:  Exposure to current topics in behavior and process of behavioral research through video presentations, demonstrations of live animals and readings. Graduate-level requirements include organizing and leading of group discussion.
May be convened with:  ECOL 487L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 587R -- Animal Behavior  (3 units)
Description:  Concepts and principles of the mechanism, development, function and evolution of behavior, with emphasis on its adaptiveness. Graduate-level requirements include term paper involving hands-on research.
May be convened with:  ECOL 487R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 588 -- Arizona Mammals  (4 units)
Description:  The distribution, ecology, relative abundance, conservation, politics and management implications of the mammals of Arizona. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper.
Identical to:  WFSC 588.
May be convened with:  ECOL 488.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 589 -- Selected Studies of Birds  (2 units)
Description:  Recent advances in ornithology. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth presentation of a single aspect of the course topics.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  WFSC 589.
May be convened with:  ECOL 489.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 591 -- Preceptorship  (1-4 units)
Description:  Specialized work on an individual basis, consisting of instruction and practice in actual service in a department, program, or discipline. Teaching formats may include seminars, in-depth studies, laboratory work and patient study.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 596A -- Evolutionary Ecology  (1-2 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
May be repeated:  for a total of 12 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596B -- Population Biology  (1 unit)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Prerequisite(s):  open to majors only.
May be repeated:  for credit 6 times (maximum 7 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596G -- Topics in Genetics and Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  Various topics in genetics and evolution. Repeatable with permission of instructor.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
Identical to:  GENE 596G, MCB 596G.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596I -- Cooperation and Conflict in Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  [Taught alternate years beginning Spring 2000] Basic theory of cooperation and conflict from population genetics and game theory point of view within the context of the origin of sex and transitions between evolutionary units. [Taught alternate years beginning Spring 2000] Graduate-level requirements include participation, weekly question sheets, and an oral presentation.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  ANTH 596I, GENE 596I.
May be convened with:  ECOL 496I.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596J -- Plant Population Ecology  (1-3 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
May be repeated:  for a total of 18 units of credit.
May be convened with:  ECOL 496J.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596K -- Topics in Plant Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 496K.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596M -- Conservation Biology  (1 unit)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
May be repeated:  for credit 5 times (maximum 6 enrollments).
Identical to:  RNR 596M.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596P -- Macroevolution  (2 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
Identical to:  GEOS 596P.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596R -- Species Diversity  (2 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
May be convened with:  ECOL 496R.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596W -- Special Topics in Ecology and Evolution A  (1-3 units)
Description:  This seminar will allow advanced graduate students to explore special topics in ecology and evolutionary biology. Topic will be determine each semester based on timeliness of issues and needs of advanced graduate students.
Prerequisite(s):  contact department.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596X -- Special Topics in Ecology and Evolution B  (1-3 units)
Description:  This seminar will allow advanced graduate students to explore special topics in ecology and evolutionary biology. Topic will be determined each semester based on timeliness of issues and needs of advanced graduate students.
Prerequisite(s):  contact department.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596Y -- Modeling in Biology  (2 units)
Description:  An elementary introduction to the use of simple analytical mathematical models in biology. Its intended audience is students who wish to learn how to use and/or construct mathematical models but have forgotten or have never learned how to use mathematics as a language. The course will be elementary and introductory and is conceived as a bridge to more advanced mathematics and modeling courses. We will meet once a week for 2 hours. Students should expect to spend a significant amount of time working on problem sets (approximately 3 hours per week). Graduate-level requirements include weekly homework assignments and a system model.
May be convened with:  ECOL 496Y.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 597B -- Phylogenetic Inference  (2 units)
Description:  The practical application of theoretical learning within a group setting and involving an exchange of ideas and practical methods, skills, and principles.
Prerequisite(s):  ENTO 465 or ENTO 565 or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  ENTO 597B; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 599 -- Independent Study  (1-4 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work. Graduate students doing independent work which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 600A -- Fundamentals of Evolution  (3 units)
Description:  The fundamentals of modern Evolutionary Biology, including molecular evolution, phylogenetics, macroevolution, and population/quantitative genetics.
Prerequisite(s):  graduate status in EEB or related department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 600B -- Fundamentals of Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  The fundamentals of modern Ecology, including behavioral ecology, population ecology, species interactions and community/ecosystem ecology.
Prerequisite(s):  graduate status in EEB or related department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 610A -- Research in Ecology and Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  Introduction to the research currently being pursued by faculty and staff in the department.
Prerequisite(s):  open to majors only.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 610B -- Research in Ecology and Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  Introduction to the research currently being pursued by faculty and staff in the department.
Prerequisite(s):  open to majors only.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 610C -- Internship Presentation and Planning  (1 unit)
Description:  Required for first year doctoral students in Ecology. Consists of discussion and advisory sessions regarding development of research ideas. There will be 3 two hour group meetings:a planning meeting and two meetings for presentations of internships.Occasional group discussions of research ideas and methods. Coordinated by a rotating member of Ecol faculty.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 610A, ECOL 610B.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 623A -- Biology Update  (2 units)
Description:  Focuses on recent advances in the understanding of basic biology and new applications.
Prerequisite(s):  open to middle and high school biology teachers only. BIOC 623A is not prerequisite to BIOC 623B.
Identical to:  BIOC 623A; BIOC is home department.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 623B -- Biology Update  (2 units)
Description:  Focuses on recent advances in the understanding of basic biology and new applications.
Prerequisite(s):  open to middle and high school biology teachers only. BIOC 623A is not prerequisite to BIOC 623B.
Identical to:  BIOC 623B; BIOC is home department.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 660 -- Current Advances in Plant Physiology  (4 units)
Description:  Investigation of the physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms that allow a plant to perceive and respond to environmental and chemical signals during normal growth and development and when it is experiencing a stress.
Prerequisite(s):  PL S 360, CHEM 462A, CHEM 462B.
Identical to:  PL S 660; PL S is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 670 -- Recent Advances in Genetics  (2 units)
Description:  Recent advances in the field of genetics.
May be repeated:  for credit 4 times (maximum 5 enrollments).
Identical to:  GENE 670; GENE is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 699 -- Independent Study  (1-4 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work. Graduate students doing independent work which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 799 -- Independent Study  (1-4 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work. Graduate students doing independent work which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 900 -- Research  (1-8 units)
Description:  Individual research, not related to thesis or dissertation preparation, by graduate students.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 910 -- Thesis  (1-8 units)
Description:  Research for the master's thesis (whether library research, laboratory or field observation or research, artistic creation, or thesis writing). Maximum total credit permitted varies with the major department.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 920 -- Dissertation  (1-9 units)
Description:  Research for the doctoral dissertation (whether library research, laboratory or field observation or research, artistic creation, or dissertation writing).
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 930 -- Supplementary Registration  (1-9 units)
Description:  For students who have completed all course requirements for their advanced degree programs. May be used concurrently with other enrollments to bring to total number of units to the required minimum.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

 

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