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Winter 08/Spring 09 Course Descriptions

All courses below are approved to be taught in Winter 2008 and Spring 2009; however, some (or all) may not be offered in either term.  The courses that are offered in Spring link to the Schedule of Classes.  Classes with alternative External Link delivery modes (Web based, cable TV, correspondence, etc) are noted in the Schedule at the section level.  The complete list below is a good indicator of what may be offered over the next few years (contact department about offerings).  For explanations of course elements see the Key to Course Descriptions.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology (ECOL)  Department Info

ECOL 130 -- Natural History of the Southwest  (3 units)
Description:  Elementary biology of the common plants and animals of the Southwest; identification, distribution, ecology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  ENTO 130.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 181L -- Introductory Biology Laboratory I  (1 unit)
Description:  Laboratory exercises presenting techniques and fundamental principles of modern biology. Designed to complement the information concurrently presented in 181R.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $16.
Prerequisite(s):  or Concurrent registration, MCB 181R.
Identical to:  MCB 181L; MCB is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 181R -- Introductory Biology I  (3-4 units)
Description:  Introduction to the cell and its properties, basic genetics, the immune system, recombinant DNA technology with illustrations from bacteria, plants, animals and humans. Honors section available for 4 units.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  placement into MATH 110 or higher level math course as determined by the UA Math Readiness Test and/or equivalent transfer work in mathematics; Concurrent registration, MCB 181L (applicable for Fall term only).
Identical to:  MCB 181R; MCB is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 182L -- Introductory Biology II Lab  (1 unit)
Description:  Diversity and evolution of life; structure and function of plants, animals, and organ systems; processes of micro and macroevolution, strategies and selection of different species; phylogenetics and descent
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $10.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R or concurrent registration. At least Level III placement on the Math Readiness Test. High school biology recommended.
Identical to:  BIOC 182L, MCB 182L, MIC 182L.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 182R -- Introductory Biology II  (3-5 units)
Description:  Origin, diversity and evolution of life; physiology of plants, animals and organ systems; processes of micro and macroevolution; animal behavior and ecology of populations and communities emphasizing biotic interactions and biogeography. Designed for biology majors.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  At least Level III placement on the Math Readiness Test. High school biology recommended.
Identical to:  BIOC 182R, MCB 182R, MIC 182R.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 183 -- Marine Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Survey of the marine environment and its biotic communities, with emphasis on the natural history of marine organisms.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 195C -- Society and Science  (1 unit)
Description:  This colloquium is designed to explore contemporary issues faced by society. The focus is on developing the critical-thinking skills necessary to deal with the complex issues arising from modern technology and science. Topics used to illustrate problems and to develop critical thinking skills include: human disease, nutrition, genetic screening, genetic engineering, environmental issues, human behavior and other topics.   This is a First-Year Colloquium Course.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Identical to:  BIOC 195C; BIOC is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 199 -- Independent Study  (1-4 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P F.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 206 -- Environmental Biology  (4 units)
Description:  Fundamentals of ecology and their relevance to human impact on natural ecosystems. Non-majors orientation.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $20.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  two courses from Tier One, Natural Sciences (NATS 101, 102, 104).
Approved as:  General Education Tier Two - Natural Sciences.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 220 -- Evolutionary Medicine  (3 units)
Description:  In this course we will examine how the Darwinian theory of evolution by natural selection can help us understand and treat human disease. We will explore evolutionary answers to questions such as: Why do parasites harm us? Why do we age? Why do we suffer from allergies or develop cancer? Why do we reproduce sexually? Why do babies cry? Through informal lectures, readings, student presentations, and class discussions students will become exposed to basic evolutionary principles that can be applied not only to medicine, but also to other life sciences and to general understanding of the human condition.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Prerequisite(s):  Consent of instructor.
Approved as:  General Education Tier Two - Natural Sciences.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 1 hour discussion.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 223 -- Human Genetics and Evolution  (4 units)
Description:  This Tier Two biology course focuses on aspects of biology from the perspective of humans and human populations.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  two courses from Tier One, Natural Sciences (NATS 101, 102, 104).
Approved as:  General Education Tier Two - Natural Sciences.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 1 hour discussion.
Identical to:  BIOC 223.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 280 -- Sociobiology and the Evolution of Cooperation  (3 units)
Description:  Why do animals and other organisms sometimes compete and sometimes cooperate? How do organisms in groups interact, how do they organize themselves or make group decisions? This course will give you some answers to these questions. We will discuss how social behavior evolves, and how it changes the life style of the animals that display it. We will also discuss whether this research can teach us about human social behavior.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Approved as:  General Education Tier Two - Natural Sciences.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 1 hour discussion.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 297A -- Undergraduate Lab Preceptor  (3 units)
Description:  Undergraduate preceptors will work as a team with graduate assistants and course staff to teach students in Biology 181 labs. They will learn learner-centered teaching techniques, web page design, effective communication skills, and how to organize and execute a lesson plan.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  MATH 110.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
Identical to:  MCB 297A; MCB is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 299 -- Independent Study  (1-4 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P F.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 299H -- Honors Independent Study  (1-3 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 302 -- Ecology  (4 units)
Description:  Single species population biology, competition, predation and mutualism, community and organization, behavioral ecology and evolutionary ecology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $25.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L, MATH 125 or MATH 124, MATH 129.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 308 -- Paleontology  (3 units)
Description:  Basic principles and concepts; morphology and classification of fossils; their occurrence, distribution, geologic and evolutionary significance.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  GEOS 251 or GEOS 212 or ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  GEOS 308; GEOS is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 310 -- Living in Symbiosis  (3 units)
Description:  This course will provide an overview of the diversity of associations that exist between microbes and eukaryotic hosts. The course will span from highly integrated obligatory symbioses to loose associations. Emphasis will be placed on symbiotic associations with relevance to human medicine, veterinary sciences, and agriculture.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  BIOC 181R or ECOL 181R or MCB181R or MIC 181R.
Identical to:  ENTO 310; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 320 -- Genetics  (4 units)
Description:  The principles that govern the inheritance of all living organisms including molecular, chromosomal, organismal, population and evolutionary aspects of genetics. Extensive problem solving required.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 181R, ECOL 181L, ECOL 182, CHEM 103B, CHEM 104B.
Identical to:  MCB 320.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 320H -- Genetics  (5 units)
Description:  The principles that govern the inheritance of all living organisms including molecular, chromosomal, organismal, population and evolutionary aspects of genetics. Extensive problem solving required.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  MCB 320H.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 321 -- Genetics Lab  (2 units)
Description:  Laboratory principles and techniques that govern genetic analysis, including molecular, chromosomal, organismal, population, and evolutionary aspects.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $35.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 181R, ECOL 181L , ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L; ECOL/MCB 320 or equivalent or ECOL/MCB 320H or equivalent.
Typical structure:  1 hour lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 321.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 329A -- Microbial Diversity  (3 units)
Description:  Microbial diversity is a course offered to students in Microbiology, and to other majors with an interest in the remarkable genetic, species-level, phylogenetic, functional, and ecological diversity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  MCB 181R.
Identical to:  PL P 329A; PL P is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 330 -- Evolution of Animal Form and Function  (3-4 units)
Description:  This course integrates comparative aspects of ontogeny, physiology and anatomy of animals with the current concepts of evolutionary biology, life history, and behavioral ecology.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 335 -- Evolutionary Biology  (4 units)
Description:  Basic processes and patterns of evolution: natural selection, evolutionary genetics, the analysis of adaptation, the phylogeny of life, the fossil record, molecular evolution, macroevolution. Mandatory discussion session to meet once per week.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 181R, ECOL 181L, ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 340 -- Evolution of Plant Form and Function  (3 units)
Description:  The diversity in the interaction between the way organisms are put together ("form") and how they work ("function") in response to environmental challenges. The physiological mechanisms responsible for the flow and transformation of energy and materials within organisms and among organisms framed in the larger context of ecological processes.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Prerequisite(s):  MCB 181R, MCB 181L, ECOL 182R, and ECOL 182L.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 345 -- Biodiversity and the Tree of Life  (3 units)
Description:  Introduction to the diversity of life on Earth, using phylogenetic history as an organizing principle. Course emphasizes key evolutionary innovations in eukaryotes, such as multicellularity, parasitism, symbiosis, and complex morphological novelties.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL181R or ECOL182R or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  ENTO 345, MCB 345, PL S 345.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 380 -- Math Models In Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Introduction to mathematical techniques in the biological sciences. Applications include biochemistry, physiology, and ecology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  MATH 129 or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  MATH 380.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 381 -- Animal Brains, Signals, Sex, and Social Behaviors  (3 units)
Description:  To introduce the relationship between the functional organization of brains and signals in the animal world that elicit brain function resulting in behavior actions. The course will provide students with an appreciation of strategies used to observe, analyze, and study brain organization, relating this to the study of animal behavior, particularly those behaviors involving social and sexual interactions within a species.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Two Tier Two natural sciences courses. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Identical to:  NRSC 381; NRSC is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 392 -- Directed Research  (1-6 units)
Description:  Individual or small group research under the guidance of faculty.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for a total of 12 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 396H -- Honors Proseminar  (3 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 399 -- Independent Study  (1-5 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P F.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 399H -- Honors Independent Study  (1-3 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 400 -- Computer Concepts and Perl Programming  (3 units)
Description:  Basic Perl programming with applications to biology and fundamental computer concepts that are necessary to efficiently utilize computers in biological research.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  MCB 400; MCB is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 500.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 403L -- Parasitology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Parasite morphology and diagnostic laboratory techniques.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  12 units of biology and microbiology.
Identical to:  V SC 403L; V SC is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 403R -- Biology of Animal Parasites  (3 units)
Description:  Biology of host-parasite relationships with emphasis on parasites of veterinary and human importance. Parasite morphology and physiology, life cycles, epidemiology, pathogenesis and zoonotic potential.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  12 units of biology or microbiology.
Identical to:  V SC 403R; V SC is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 404A -- Biology of the Oceans  (3 units)
Description:  This course will provide a brief overview of oceanography only to set the stage for exploring the diversity and ecology of biological organisms in ocean systems, as well as how biological processes (including human activity) shape ocean physics, chemistry and geology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R or GEOS 412A or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  GEOS 404A, RNR 404A.
May be convened with:  ECOL 504A.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 405 -- Aquatic Entomology  (4 units)
Description:  Morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations of insects to life in water; taxonomy and ecology of aquatic insects.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  ENTO 405; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 505.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 406L -- Conservation Biology in the Field  (1 unit)
Description:  Problem-solving, discussion, and field trips (binoculars recommended). One Saturday trip and two 3-day weekend trips in Oct-Nov.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 406R.
Identical to:  GEOS 406L, RNR 406L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 406L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 406R -- Conservation Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Biological principles applied to protection and recovery of threatened and endangered species and the processes which link species in natural ecosystems. Biological basis for conservation laws and regulations. Distribution, valuation and sustainable production of biodiversity benefits for humanity.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182L, ECOL 182R, ECOL 302. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Identical to:  GEOS 406R, RNR 406R.
May be convened with:  ECOL 506R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 407 -- Astrobiology  (3 units)
Description:  Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and destiny of life in the universe. It is an interdisciplinary science at the intersection of physics, astronomy, biology, geology, and mathematics, asking where and under what conditions life can arise and exist in the Universe. The course will cover the discovery of planetary systems around other stars, the nature of habitable zones around distant stars, and the existence of life in extreme environments on Earth (including the hydrothermal ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park and the cryogenic ecosystems of Antarctica). The course is appropriate for middle and high school teachers with a minimum of one year teaching experience.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  6 semester units of biological/life sciences.
Identical to:  ASTR 407; ASTR is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 507.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 408L -- Genes, Biotechnology and the Environment  (2 units)
Description:  This course is an intensive summer lab course in DNA technology for secondary school science teachers and pre-service teachers. Students use molecular techniques of PCR, DNA sequencing, and computer BLAST searches to learn how genes and molecules are linked to the ecology of many species. The course may include field trips and may involve high school student participants.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Some background in biology, experience or interest in science teaching.
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 1 hour lecture.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
Identical to:  BIOC 408L, MCB 408L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 508L.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 409 -- Evolution of Infectious Disease  (3 units)
Description:  Causes and consequences of evolutionary change in pathogens. Evolutionary principles, vertebrate immunity, molecular epidemiology, evolution of virulence, evolution of antimicrobial resistance, predicting epidemics, impacts of infectious disease on host evolution, HIV evolution.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L, MCB 181R or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  CPH 409, MCB 409, V SC 409.
May be convened with:  ECOL 509.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 411 -- Insect Behavior  (4 units)
Description:  Survey of the behavioral solutions to ecological problems employed by insects and other terrestrial arthropods. Emphasis on patterns highly developed or uniquely expressed in the insects such as social behavior, chemical communication, diet choice, pollination ecology, and parasitoid host finding. Evolutionary perspective, models, and theory. Student research exercises and projects.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  ENTO 411; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 511.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 412A -- Ocean Sciences  (4 units)
Description:  Course covers ocean science from broad geological, biological, chemical and physical perspectives. Topics include seafloor geology, wave phenomena, ocean circulation and climate, marine ecosystems, and environmental issues. Required course field trip to Mexico. US Customs now requires passports for travel to Mexico.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  One year of science or consent of instructor.
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 3 hours lecture.
Identical to:  GEOS 412A; GEOS is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 414 -- Plants of the Desert  (2 units)
Description:  Designed for teachers and others wishing to become familiar with common native and cultivated plants; identification, ecology, and uses.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
May be convened with:  ECOL 514.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 415L -- Insect Biology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Survey of insect diversity through identification and classification.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L.
Identical to:  ENTO 415L; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 515L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 415R -- Insect Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Examination of how insects function morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally. Investigation of relationships between members of Insecta and how they interact with other major taxa, both plant and animal. See http://ag.arizona.edu/classes/ento415/ for class information and list of lectures.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L.
Identical to:  ENTO 415R; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 515R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 416 -- Bioinformatics and Genomic Analysis  (3 units)
Description:  Analysis of genome sequences for function using local and internet computer resources. Consult instructor for appropriate prerequisites before enrolling.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  programming experience.
Identical to:  MCB 416; MCB is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 516.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 418 -- Spatio-Temporal Ecology  (2 units)
Description:  Population growth and species interactions in spatially and temporally varying environments. Meta populations and communities. The scale transition, the storage effect, nonlinear competitive variance, fitness-density covariance, disturbance, competition-colonization tradeoffs.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 518.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 421 -- Philosophy of the Biological Sciences  (3 units)
Description:  Laws and models in biology, structure of evolutionary theory, teleological explanations, reductionism, sociobiology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  PHIL 421; PHIL is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 521.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 422 -- Problem Solving with Genetic Tools  (3 units)
Description:  Computer-simulated laboratory. Solving problems via genetic experiments in phage, yeast, and Mendelian genetic systems. Individual and team projects require deduction and discovery of genotype, pathway, and genetic phenomena through crosses and phenotypic observation. 1 hour in-class lecture, 1 hour on-line tutorial, 3 hours of lab each week. Honors contract available and requires completion of additional problems in each section.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  MCB 181R, ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L, ECOL 320. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 2 hours lecture.
Identical to:  MCB 422; MCB is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 426 -- Population Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  General introductory course on empirical and theoretical population genetics. It will involve two weekly lectures, weekly problem sets, and regular readings from the primary literature. A major goal of this course is to make students familiar with basic models of population genetics and to acquaint students with empirical tests of these models. As much as any field of biology, population genetics has been divided into a theoretical and an empirical branch. However, these two bodies of knowledge are intimately related and this course will cover both in roughly equal amounts. We will discuss the primary forces and processes involved in shaping genetic variation in natural populations (mutation, drift, selection, migration, recombination, mating patterns, population size and population subdivision), methods of measuring genetic variation in nature, and experimental tests of important ideas in population genetics. The course will also cover a few more specialized topics such as transposable elements, the evolution of multigene families, and molecular clocks.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L, ECOL 335; ECOL 320 or PL S 312.
Identical to:  GENE 426.
May be convened with:  ECOL 526.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 428L -- Microbial Genetics Laboratory  (2 units)
Description:  Laboratory associated with lecture course on Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages.   This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320, PL S 312 and PL P 428R. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Identical to:  PL P 428L; PL P is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 528L.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 428R -- Microbial Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages.   This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Identical to:  PL P 428R; PL P is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 528R.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 437 -- Vertebrate Physiology  (4 units)
Description:  Basic principles of vertebrate physiology dealing particularly with physiological homeostasis maintained by interactions of complex organ systems.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 181R, ECOL 181L, ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L, and one semester of organic chemistry. Genetics and biochemistry suggested. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Identical to:  MCB 437, V SC 437.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 438 -- Biogeography  (3 units)
Description:  The role of historical events and ecological processes in determining the past and present geographic distribution of plants and animals.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L.
Identical to:  GEOG 438; GEOG is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 538.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 440 -- Mechanisms of Plant Development  (3 units)
Description:  Focuses on the molecular genetic mechanisms of plant development using primarily the current model systems.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  CHEM 241B and MCB 320 or PL S 312. Concurrent registration, MCB 410 and MCB 411. One course in Biochemistry and one course in Molecular Biology are recommended.
Identical to:  PL S 440; PL S is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 440.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 441 -- Limnology  (4 units)
Description:  Study of lakes and streams; biological characteristics, as related to physical, chemical, geological, and historical processes operating on fresh waters.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $12.50.
Prerequisite(s):  6 units of biology, 3 units of chemistry and 3 units of ecology.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  WFSC 441; WFSC is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 541.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 447 -- Introduction to Theoretical Ecology  (2 units)
Description:  Population growth and density dependence; predation; competition and apparent competition; coexistence mechanisms: niches, spatial and temporal variation; food web concepts and properties; applications. Emphasis on understanding through models and examples.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Prerequisite(s):  MATH 124 or MATH 125 or equivalent and ECOL 302 or equivalent, or consent of instructor.
May be convened with:  ECOL 547.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 449A -- Plant Genetics and Genomics  (3 units)
Description:  A 3 unit lecture/discussion course that provides an advanced treatment of the current knowledge and experimental approaches used in genetic and genomic analysis, with emphasis on plants. Basic understanding of Mendelian genetics, gene and genome structure and function is required.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  PL S 312.
Identical to:  PL S 449A; PL S is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 549A.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 449B -- Discovering Evolution: From Lamarck to the Modern Synthesis  (3 units)
Description:  Examination of the personalities and events leading to the discovery of evolution, the scientific community’s response thereto and subsequent developments including the in-corporation of genetics into evolutionary theory. Time permitting, the following topics will also be addressed: Neo-Larmackianism and the Lysenko affair, social Darwinism, craniometry and eugenics, sociobiology, and the implications of recent discoveries in genetics and development.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL181L or ECOL181R and ECOL182 or ECOL182R or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  MCB 449B.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 450 -- Marine Discovery  (4 units)
Description:  Participate in this marine biology outreach program for grades 3-8. Undergraduates do all of the instruction in on-campus, inquiry-based workshops featuring marine diversity and conservation with a focus on the nearby Sea of Cortez. You will gain experience in developing your own teaching style, while learning about marine biology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L or ECOL 183 or GEOS 212 or GEOS 412A.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 451 -- Drosophila: Model System for Evolution  (3 units)
Description:  Drosophila is the most important eukaryotic model system for comparative studies in biology. We will explore several aspects of its ecology, genetics and evolution, making connections to general concepts of biology and applied research. The course will combine lectures with hands-on activities (lab and computer) and field trips.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  Consent of instructor.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 451.
May be convened with:  ECOL 551.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 452 -- Dryland Ecohydrology and Vegetation Dynamics  (3 units)
Description:  Overview of ecological and hydrological interrelationships and associated vegetation dynamics for water-limited, dryland ecosystems.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  RNR 316, ECOL 302, or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  WS M 452; WS M is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 552.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 453 -- Functional and Evolutionary Genomics  (4 units)
Description:  Computational, functional, and evolutionary approaches to genomics, including bioinformatics and laboratory methods relevant to many modern research approaches in biology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Genetics or molecular biology beyond introductory biology, or consent of instructor.
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 3 hours lecture.
Identical to:  BIOC 453, MCB 453.
May be convened with:  ECOL 553.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 453L -- Functional and Evolutionary Genomics - Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Computational, functional, and evolutionary approaches to genomics, including bioinformatics and laboratory methods.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 453R.
Identical to:  BIOC 453L, MCB 453L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 553L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 454 -- Water Harvesting  (3 units)
Description:  Course focuses on water harvesting principles and techniques. Students will learn how to apply concepts at their own residences and participate in applying them on the UA campus.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 1 hour workshop.
Identical to:  SWES 454; SWES is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 554.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 456A -- Watersheds and Ecosystem Function  (3 units)
Description:  Natural resource managers and policymakers are increasingly encountering the mandate for maintenance of ecosystem function in watersheds. What does this mean? How do we measure ecosystem function? How do we measure positive or negative changes in ecosystems? This course will examine the structure and function of watershed ecosystems with emphasis on the ecosystem and geomorphic processes shaping watersheds. Students are introduced to the processes that shape the structure and functioning of ecosystems and watersheds, their responses to natural and anthropogenic change and recovery to these disturbances. Student will compare different ecosystems to watershed responses to anthropogenic changes and collect data from selected field sites to explore the relationship among ecosystem processes and changing climate (or other disturbances). Students will develop the writing skills necessary to communicate technical information, the ability to integrate and contextualize the principles of natural resource management by class field work, and gain an understanding of the importance of proper ecologic functioning to the maintenance of healthy watershed systems.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R. GIS course recommended.
Identical to:  WS M 456A; WS M is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 556A.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 457 -- Medical-Veterinary Entomology  (3 units)
Description:  An overview of medically important arthropods and the diseases they transmit. Special attention will be paid to newly emerging and locally important vectors and diseases. Basic coursework in biology or entomology is required.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L.
Identical to:  ENTO 457; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 557.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 465 -- Phylogenetic Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Concepts in phylogenetic biology, focusing on the phylogenetic (evolutionary) tree of species. The form of the tree, character evolution, speciation, and gene trees.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320 ; ECOL 476B or GEOS 476A or other course in evolution, or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  GEOS 465, ENTO 465.
May be convened with:  ECOL 565.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 472 -- Systematic Botany  (4 units)
Description:  Evolutionary relationships and characteristics of seed plants: systems of classification; acquisition of skills to identify members of almost 50 families, collection and identification of local flora.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  PL S 472.
May be convened with:  ECOL 572.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 473 -- Topics in Behavioral Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  Theory and practice of behavioral ecology. Focuses on the ecology and evolution of animal behavior. Analytical and critical approach to frontier issues and techniques in behavioral research.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 573.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 474 -- Aquatic Plants and the Environment  (4 units)
Description:  The role of riparian areas, estuaries, and constructed wetlands in the environment. Emphasis on plants as wildlife habitat for nutrient cycling and bioremediation.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  SWES 474; SWES is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 574.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 475 -- Freshwater and Marine Algae  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of planktonic and benthic species; field techniques and lab culture.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $25.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  4 units of biological or plant sciences. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  SWES 475, WFSC 475.
May be convened with:  ECOL 575.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 478 -- Global Change  (3 units)
Description:  Analysis of the Earth system through an examination of its component parts (particularly climate and biogeochemistry) and their interactions with human activities, emphasizing information needed to understand modern and future environmental changes.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  upper-division standing, introductory course work in biological and physical sciences.
Identical to:  GEOS 478; GEOS is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 578.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 479 -- Art of Scientific Discovery  (3 units)
Description:  Techniques of posing questions and solving puzzles encountered in scientific research, with emphasis on life sciences and mathematics.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  CBA 479; CBA is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 482 -- Ichthyology  (4 units)
Description:  Ecology, evolution and systematics of fishes, with field and lab emphasis on Gulf of California and Arizona fishes.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $25.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  WFSC 482.
May be convened with:  ECOL 582.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 483 -- Herpetology  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of the amphibians and reptiles.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Identical to:  WFSC 483.
May be convened with:  ECOL 583.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 484 -- Ornithology  (4 units)
Description:  Natural history of birds and its bearing upon the problems of animal behavior, distribution, and evolution.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  one basic biology course. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 2 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  WFSC 484.
May be convened with:  ECOL 584.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 485 -- Mammalogy  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of mammals.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $125.
Prerequisite(s):  Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
Identical to:  WFSC 485.
May be convened with:  ECOL 585.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 487L -- Animal Behavior Lab  (1 unit)
Description:  Exposure to current topics in behavior and process of behavioral research through video presentations, demonstrations of live animals and readings.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 587L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 487R -- Animal Behavior  (3 units)
Description:  Concepts and principles of the mechanism, development, function and evolution of behavior, with emphasis on its adaptiveness.  This is a Writing Emphasis Course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  8 units of biology. Satisfaction of the Mid-Career Writing Assessment (MCWA).
May be convened with:  ECOL 587R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 488 -- Arizona Mammals  (4 units)
Description:  The distribution, ecology, relative abundance, conservation, politics and management implications of the mammals of Arizona.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L or equivalent.
Identical to:  WFSC 488.
May be convened with:  ECOL 588.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 492 -- Directed Research  (1-6 units)
Description:  Individual or small group research under the guidance of faculty.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for a total of 12 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 495B -- Insect Biodiversity and Land Use in Sonora (Mexico)  (3 units)
Description:  Site: Guaymas Campus of the Monterey Technological University, Mexico. This course provides an introduction to (1) the natural history of Sonora and its desert ecosystem, (2) land use patterns and change in Sonora, (3) insect systematics and natural history, particularly of insect pests and pollinators, (4) field collecting methods and identification, (5) construction of biodiversity databases, and (6) biodiversity theory and analysis. Indices of insect biodiversity can provide important means of assessing ecosystem health and responses to anthropogenic landscape change. Analyses will be made of insect communities and biodiversity in urban, suburban, agricultural, and native habitats. Responses of insect populations to land use change can include outbreaks of insect pests and insect-vectored human and animal diseases, therefore special attention will be paid to insect pests and vectors.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 595B.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 496A -- Conservation Biology Internship Advanced Seminar I  (2 units)
Description:  This is the third of a four course sequence designed for students participating in our Conservation Biology Internship Program. This seminar will be a critical assessment of students research, with a treatment of experimental design.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  acceptance into Conservation Biology Internship Program.
Identical to:  RNR 496A.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496C -- Conservation Biology Internship Advanced Seminar II  (2 units)
Description:  This seminar will focus on analysis and presentation of research results, with an emphasis on publication.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320 or ECOL 335 or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  RNR 496C.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 496J -- Plant Population Ecology  (1-3 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  some introductory botany, ecology and consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for a total of 18 units of credit.
May be convened with:  ECOL 596J.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496M -- Exploring Life on the WWW: The Digital Dissemination of Biological Research  (3 units)
Description:  This course is designed for aspiring life scientists and science teachers. It will improve students' literacy in the areas of life science data management, information technology, and the effective exchange of scientific information across disciplines and professional cultures.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E. Available to qualified students for Pass/Fail Option.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L, and consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  ENTO 496M; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 596M.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496N -- Non-Linear Dynamics of Biological Systems  (2-4 units)
Description:  Non-linear dynamics of biological systems with applications in biochemistry, ecology, epidemiology, and molecular biology. Student/faculty presentations, opportunity for independent projects.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  two semesters of calculus, consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 4 times (maximum 5 enrollments).
Identical to:  BIOC 496N, MATH 496N, MCB 496N.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496O -- Galapagos Marine Ecology  (1-6 units)
Description:  Galapagos Marine Ecology is a three-week summer course taught on the island of San Cristobal, Galapagos, Ecuador. Students conduct their own marine ecology research investigations under the guidance of the instructors, using the natural reef as a living “laboratory”. Students are introduced to the local history and culture of the people who live on San Cristobal and the environmental issues that predominate in this unique world heritage site. There is a required service component helping children from a local school with English language instruction. This course is designed to meet the needs of diverse audiences: K-12 teachers interested in incorporating the Galapagos into their classroom instruction, other interested graduate students, and upper division undergraduate students. Students enrolled for the first time will take the course for 3 units. Students may repeat the course up to 3 times for 1-6 units.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 596O.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 496R -- Species Diversity  (2 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 596R.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 496S -- Selected Topics for Science Educators  (1-2 units)
Description:  The course is structured as a seminar with discussion, lectures and activities for the K-12 classroom. The course is focused around a speaker series offered through the College of Science, which is focused on a different scientific theme each year. Class meets for three hours once per week in the evening. During the first hour, students participate in an activity for teaching science in a K-12 classroom or a presentation on a K-12 outreach opportunity at the UA. During the second hour, a weekly College of Science theme semester seminar is attended. The third hour of class, the seminar and its application to the classroom is discussed. Activities and discussion will focus on teaching science in high school or middle school. This course is structured for science teachers at the 6th-12th grade level, but K-12 teachers at all levels are invited to participate. Pre-service teachers who are not yet certified may take the course for undergraduate credit.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Pre-service science teachers in a teacher preparation program or those with consent of instructor may enroll at Undergraduate level.
May be repeated:  for credit 6 times (maximum 7 enrollments).
Identical to:  GEOS 496S.
May be convened with:  ECOL 596S.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 497A -- Undergraduate Teaching Training in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology  (1-5 units)
Description:  The practical application of theoretical learning within a group setting and involving an exchange of ideas and practical methods, skills, and principles.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  consult department before enrolling.
May be repeated:  for a total of 12 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 497B -- Biology Lecture Tutor  (3-5 units)
Description:  Enrolled students serve as peer tutors for ECOL182 (Introductory Biology II), with the goal of promoting independence in student learning. Tutors will work with ECOL182 faculty and gain leadership and mentoring skills while brushing up on biology (helpful for those about to take MCATs or GREs) and establishing contacts and skills beneficial for future job searches.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R, ECOL 182L, ECOL 302, ECOL 335, ECOL 320 or PL S 312.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 497K -- Dendroecology  (3 units)
Description:  Dendroecology is the study of ecology through the use of the tree-ring record. Ecological variables in the tree-ring record, theory and techniques of dendrochronology, applications to forest ecology. Lectures, laboratory training, and a multi-day field trip including data collection.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50, for laboratory supplies and field trip expenses.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  Two semesters of Introductory Biology (ECOL 181-182 or equivalent) and one semester of Ecology (ECOL 302 or equivalent). Applicants with field experience but lacking course prerequisites may request consent of instructor.
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 2 hours lecture.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
Identical to:  GEOS 497K; GEOS is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 597K.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 498 -- Senior Capstone  (1-3 units)
Description:  A culminating experience for majors involving a substantive project that demonstrates a synthesis of learning accumulated in the major, including broadly comprehensive knowledge of the discipline and its methodologies. Senior standing required.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 498H -- Honors Thesis  (3 units)
Description:  An honors thesis is required of all the students graduating with honors. Students ordinarily sign up for this course as a two-semester sequence. The first semester the student performs research under the supervision of a faculty member; the second semester the student writes an honors thesis.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be repeated:  for a total of 9 units of credit.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 499 -- Independent Study  (1-5 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P F.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 499H -- Honors Independent Study  (1-5 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 500 -- Computer Concepts and Perl Programming  (3 units)
Description:  Basic Perl programming with applications to biology and fundamental computer concepts that are necessary to efficiently utilize computers in biological research. Graduate-level requirements include writing two functional specifications.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  MCB 500; MCB is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 400.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 503L -- Parasitology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Parasite morphology and diagnostic laboratory techniques. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper dealing with the differential diagnostic techniques used to identify a single parasite species.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  MIC 503L; MIC is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 503R -- Biology of Animal Parasites  (3 units)
Description:  Biology of host-parasite relationships with emphasis on parasites of veterinary and human importance. Parasite morphology and physiology, life cycles, epidemiology, pathogenesis and zoonotic potential. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper on the molecular biology/immune response of a single parasite.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  MIC 503R; MIC is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 403R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 504A -- Biology of the Oceans  (3 units)
Description:  This course will provide a brief overview of oceanography only to set the stage for exploring the diversity and ecology of biological organisms in ocean systems, as well as how biological processes (including human activity) shape ocean physics, chemistry and geology. Graduate-level requirements include writing an NSF-style Graduate Student Research Fellowship targeted to the Biological Oceanography directorate on an instructor-approved topic of their choice.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL182R or GEOS412A or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  GEOS 404A, RNR 404A.
May be convened with:  ECOL 404A.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 505 -- Aquatic Entomology  (4 units)
Description:  Morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations of insects to life in water; taxonomy and ecology of aquatic insects. Graduate-level requirements include an original research or review paper on some aspect of aquatic entomology agreed upon by the student and the professor.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  ENTO 505; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 405.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 506L -- Conservation Biology in the Field  (1 unit)
Description:  Problem-solving, discussion, and field trips (binoculars recommended). One Saturday trip and two 3-day weekend trips in Oct-Nov. Graduate-level requirements include participation as team leaders.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 506R.
Identical to:  GEOS 506L, RNR 506L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 406L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 506R -- Conservation Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Biological principles applied to protection and recovery of threatened and endangered species and the processes which link species in natural ecosystems. Biological basis for conservation laws and regulations. Distribution, valuation and sustainable production of biodiversity benefits for humanity. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  GEOS 506R, RNR 506R.
May be convened with:  ECOL 406R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 507 -- Astrobiology  (3 units)
Description:  Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution, distribution, and destiny of life in the universe. It is an interdisciplinary science at the intersection of physics, astronomy, biology, geology, and mathematics, asking where and under what conditions life can arise and exist in the Universe. The course will cover the discovery of planetary systems around other stars, the nature of habitable zones around distant stars, and the existence of life in extreme environments on Earth (including the hydrothermal ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park and the cryogenic ecosystems of Antarctica). The course is appropriate for middle and high school teachers with a minimum of one year teaching experience. Graduate-level requirements include two additional assignments in the form of graduate-level term papers.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  ASTR 507; ASTR is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 407.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 508L -- Genes, Biotechnology and the Environment  (2 units)
Description:  This course is an intensive summer lab course in DNA technology for secondary school science teachers and pre-service teachers. Students use molecular techniques of PCR, DNA sequencing, and computer BLAST searches to learn how genes and molecules are linked to the ecology of many species. The course may include field trips and may involve high school student participants. Graduate-level requirements include writing and presenting to the class a plan for applying course material to a secondary science classroom by using biotechnology and bioinformatics to answer a problem in ecology and/or evolution.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Some experience with lab techniques/biotechnology required (equivalent to BIOC 597A "DNA Recombinant Techniques").
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 1 hour lecture.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
Identical to:  BIOC 508L, MCB 508L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 408L.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 509 -- Evolution of Infectious Disease  (3 units)
Description:  Causes and consequences of evolutionary change in pathogens. Evolutionary principles, vertebrate immunity, molecular epidemiology, evolution of virulence, evolution of antimicrobial resistance, predicting epidemics, impacts of infectious disease on host evolution, HIV evolution. Graduate-level requirements include a term paper and an in-class presentation on the same topic.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  CPH 509, MCB 509, V SC 509.
May be convened with:  ECOL 409.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 511 -- Insect Behavior  (4 units)
Description:  Survey of the behavioral solutions to ecological problems employed by insects and other terrestrial arthropods. Emphasis on patterns highly developed or uniquely expressed in the insects such as social behavior, chemical communication, diet choice, pollination ecology, and parasitoid host finding. Evolutionary perspective, models, and theory. Student research exercises and projects. Graduate-level requirements include a written literature review and oral presentation of a selected topic.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Identical to:  ENTO 511; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 411.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 514 -- Plants of the Desert  (2 units)
Description:  Designed for teachers and others wishing to become familiar with common native and cultivated plants; identification, ecology, and uses. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper on a relevant topic.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
May be convened with:  ECOL 414.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 515L -- Insect Biology Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Survey of insect diversity through identification and classification. Graduate-level requirements include making a larger insect collection.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 182R and ECOL 182L.
Identical to:  ENTO 515L; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 415L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 515R -- Insect Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Examination of how insects function morphologically, physiologically, and behaviorally. Investigation of relationships between members of Insecta and how they interact with other major taxa, both plant and animal. See http://ag.arizona.edu/classes/ento415/ for class information and list of lectures. Graduate-level requirements include submission of reports on landmark papers in insect biology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  ENTO 515R; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 415R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 516 -- Bioinformatics and Genomic Analysis  (3 units)
Description:  Analysis of genome sequences for function using local and internet computer resources. Consult instructor for appropriate prerequisites before enrolling. Graduate-level requirement include a research project, written report, and a class presentation.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  MCB 500.
Identical to:  MCB 516; MCB is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 416.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 517 -- Insect Systematics  (4 units)
Description:  Principles and methods of insect systematics. A review of the evolution of insects, with an emphasis on their phylogenetic relationships. Practice in identification of adult and immature insects, especially those from Arizona.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  ENTO 517; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 518 -- Spatio-Temporal Ecology  (2 units)
Description:  Population growth and species interactions in spatially and temporally varying environments. Meta populations and communities. The scale transition, the storage effect, nonlinear competitive variance, fitness-density covariance, disturbance, competition-colonization tradeoffs. Graduate-level requirements include the additional challenge of including less assistive text, as these students are expected to possess a broader knowledge base. .
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 418.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 520 -- Insect Molecular Biology  (3 units)
Description:  This course covers molecular biology, common molecular techniques, Drosophila genetics and functional genomics, molecular genetics in other insects, and applications to entomological research and pest control.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ENTO 415R, Courses in Biochemistry, Cell Biology, or Molecular Genetics or consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  ENTO 520; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 521 -- Philosophy of the Biological Sciences  (3 units)
Description:  Laws and models in biology, structure of evolutionary theory, teleological explanations, reductionism, sociobiology. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper on a central theme or topic of the course.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  PHIL 521; PHIL is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 421.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 522 -- History of Genetics  (2 units)
Description:  Discoveries which have led to the present state of knowledge in the various areas of genetics and related disciplines, with particular attention to the context of the time periods in which they were made.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Undergraduate biology or genetics course, or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  GENE 522; GENE is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 525 -- Speciation  (2 units)
Description:  [Taught alternate years 1999 - 2000] Mechanisms of evolution in the formation of races and species of animals and plants.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  GENE 525.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 526 -- Population Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  General introductory course on empirical and theoretical population genetics. It will involve two weekly lectures, weekly problem sets, and regular readings from the primary literature. A major goal of this course is to make students familiar with basic models of population genetics and to acquaint students with empirical tests of these models. As much as any field of biology, population genetics has been divided into a theoretical and an empirical branch. However, these two bodies of knowledge are intimately related and this course will cover both in roughly equal amounts. We will discuss the primary forces and processes involved in shaping genetic variation in natural populations (mutation, drift, selection, migration, recombination, mating patterns, population size and population subdivision), methods of measuring genetic variation in nature, and experimental tests of important ideas in population genetics. The course will also cover a few more specialized topics such as transposable elements, the evolution of multigene families, and molecular clocks. Graduate-level requirements include additional exam questions, additional readings from the literature, and presentation of a 15 minute overview and synthesis of a specialized topic in population genetics.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  GENE 526.
May be convened with:  ECOL 426.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 528L -- Microbial Genetics Laboratory  (2 units)
Description:  Laboratory associated with lecture course on Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages. Graduate-level requirements include the DNA sequence of an entire operon from any one of a variety of bacteria and additionally analyze one product from the operon using several GCG protein analysis programs. Also extra exam questions.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Identical to:  PL P 528L; PL P is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 428L.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 528R -- Microbial Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Prokaryotic gene structure and function; methods of gene transfer and mapping, DNA structure, replication, transcription, and translation. Hands-on computer analysis of DNA sequences and gene cloning strategies. Principles of regulation of gene expression. Biology of plasmids and bacteriophages. Graduate-level requirements include a DNA sequence of an entire operon from any one of a variety of bacteria and additionally analyze one product from the operon using several GCG protein analysis programs. An extensive exam.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  PL P 528R; PL P is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 428R.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 530 -- Conservation Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Basic methods and theories of genetic analyses, application of these principles to promote conservation and long term survival of free-ranging species, and exploration of current conservation genetic literature.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 320, PL S 312, basic genetics class, or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  RNR 530; RNR is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 533 -- Human Genetics  (3 units)
Description:  Basic genetic theory and techniques, as applied to the human species; methods of analysis of genetic and environmental variation among individuals and populations.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  GENE 533; GENE is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 538 -- Biogeography  (3 units)
Description:  The role of historical events and ecological processes in determining the past and present geographic distribution of plants and animals. Graduate-level requirements include a research paper.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  GEOG 538; GEOG is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 438.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 540 -- Plant Growth and Development  (3 units)
Description:  Focuses on the molecular genetic mechanisms of plant development using primarily the current model systems. Graduate-level requirements include seven journal club discussions and presentations for graduate students and honors undergraduate students.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  PL S 540; PL S is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 440.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 541 -- Limnology  (4 units)
Description:  Study of lakes and streams; biological characteristics, as related to physical, chemical, geological, and historical processes operating on fresh waters. Graduate-level requirements include a report that synthesizes literature on a research issue of current concern, an in-class presentation and several discussion meetings.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $12.50.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 6 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  WFSC 541; WFSC is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 441.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 544 -- Insect Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  The study of how variation in the environment, interactions with other species and the special features of insect "design," have determined the evolution of diverse insect life histories, the dynamics of insect population and the roles of insects in communities.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  ENTO 544; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 547 -- Introduction to Theoretical Ecology  (2 units)
Description:  Population growth and density dependence; predation; competition and apparent competition; coexistence mechanisms: niches, spatial and temporal variation; food web concepts and properties; applications. Emphasis on understanding through models and examples. Graduate-level requirements include additional questions of a more advanced nature on exams.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 447.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 549A -- Plant Genetics and Genomics  (3 units)
Description:  A 3 unit lecture/discussion course that provides an advanced treatment of the current knowledge and experimental approaches used in genetic and genomic analysis, with emphasis on plants. Basic understanding of Mendelian genetics, gene and genome structure and function is required. Graduate-level requirements include leading 3 course discussions on review articles and problem sets and write a paper based on each of the three research discussions that they lead.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  PL S 549A; PL S is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 449A.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 551 -- Drosophila: Model System for Evolution  (3 units)
Description:  Drosophila is the most important eukaryotic model system for comparative studies in biology. We will explore several aspects of its ecology, genetics and evolution, making connections to general concepts of biology and applied research. The course will combine lectures with hands-on activities (lab and computer) and field trips. Graduate-level requirements include a review paper on one of the topics discussed in class and additional homework.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 3 hours laboratory.
Identical to:  MCB 551.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 552 -- Dryland Ecohydrology and Vegetation Dynamics  (3 units)
Description:  Overview of ecological and hydrological interrelationships and associated vegetation dynamics for water-limited, dryland ecosystems. Graduate-level requirement include graduate students to produce synthesis papers on relevant literature and will meet five times outside of regular class hours to discuss these syntheses. Graduate students will also provide feedback for undergraduate students on draft summary papers.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  WS M 552; WS M is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 452.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 553 -- Functional and Evolutionary Genomics  (4 units)
Description:  Computational, functional, and evolutionary approaches to genomics, including bioinformatics and laboratory methods relevant to many modern research approaches in biology. Graduate-level requirements include students completing independently designed lab exercises and relate these to the primary literature in a paper. Undergraduate students will only complete defined lab exercises.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 553L for first year IGERT fellows.
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 3 hours lecture.
Identical to:  BIOC 553, MCB 553.
May be convened with:  ECOL 453.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 553L -- Functional and Evolutionary Genomics - Laboratory  (1 unit)
Description:  Computational, functional, and evolutionary approaches to genomics, including bioinformatics and laboratory methods. Graduate-level requirements include completion of independently designed lab exercises and relating them to the primary literature in a paper.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 553R.
Identical to:  BIOC 553L.
May be convened with:  ECOL 453L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 554 -- Water Harvesting  (3 units)
Description:  Course focuses on water harvesting principles and techniques. Students will learn how to apply concepts at their own residences and participate in applying them on the UA campus. Graduate-level requirements include working with other graduate students to evaluate water harvesting practices on campus. Two examples of good & poor water harvesting on campus plus two sites that might be considered for future harvesting must be surveyed with results posted on website.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Typical structure:  2 hours lecture, 1 hour workshop.
Identical to:  SWES 554; SWES is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 454.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 556A -- Watersheds and Ecosystem Function  (3 units)
Description:  Natural resource managers and policymakers are increasingly encountering the mandate for maintenance of ecosystem function in watersheds. What does this mean? How do we measure ecosystem function? How do we measure positive or negative changes in ecosystems? This course will examine the structure and function of watershed ecosystems with emphasis on the ecosystem and geomorphic processes shaping watersheds. Students are introduced to the processes that shape the structure and functioning of ecosystems and watersheds, their responses to natural and anthropogenic change and recovery to these disturbances. Student will compare different ecosystems to watershed responses to anthropogenic changes and collect data from selected field sites to explore the relationship among ecosystem processes and changing climate (or other disturbances). Students will develop the writing skills necessary to communicate technical information, the ability to integrate and contextualize the principles of natural resource management by class field work, and gain an understanding of the importance of proper ecologic functioning to the maintenance of healthy watershed systems. Graduate-level requirements include conducting a literature review of an ecosystem and its response to anthropogenic change or disturbance and work as a group to synthesize these data across ecosystems. This will include proposal, annotated bibliography, and term paper.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  WS M 556A; WS M is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 456A.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 557 -- Medical-Veterinary Entomology  (3 units)
Description:  An overview of medically important arthropods and the diseases they transmit. Special attention will be paid to newly emerging and locally important vectors and diseases. Basic coursework in biology or entomology is required. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth review article on a relevant topic of medical entomology. The paper (15 to 20 pages of double-spaced text, including references) should be written in the same form and bibliographic style as articles in the Annual Review of Entomology. Spelling, grammar, sentence and paragraph construction, and overall organization will be considered for the grade.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  ENTO 557; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 457.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 560 -- Core Concepts in Plant Biology  (4 units)
Description:  Physiological, biochemical, genetic and molecular biological principles fundamental to graduate level study of growth, development and reproduction of plants in normal and stressful environments.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  PL S 360, CHEM 462A, CHEM 462B.
Identical to:  PL S 560; PL S is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 561 -- Core Concepts in Plant Biology II  (4 units)
Description:  Physiological, biochemical, genetic and molecular biological principles fundamental to graduate level study of growth, development and reproduction of plants in normal and stressful environments.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  PL S 360, BIOC 462A, BIOC 462B.
Typical structure:  3 hours lecture, 1 hour discussion.
Identical to:  PL S 561; PL S is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 565 -- Phylogenetic Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Concepts in phylogenetic biology, focusing on the phylogenetic (evolutionary) tree of species. The form of the tree, character evolution, speciation, and gene trees. Graduate-level requirements include a more in-depth term paper.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  GEOS 565, ENTO 565.
May be convened with:  ECOL 465.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 572 -- Systematic Botany  (4 units)
Description:  Evolutionary relationships and characteristics of seed plants: systems of classification; acquisition of skills to identify members of almost 50 families, collection and identification of local flora. Graduate-level requirements include study of additional plant families and increased depth regarding class project.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  PL S 572.
May be convened with:  ECOL 472.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 573 -- Topics in Behavioral Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  Theory and practice of behavioral ecology. Focuses on the ecology and evolution of animal behavior. Analytical and critical approach to frontier issues and techniques in behavioral research. Graduate-level requirements include different exams in both number and difficulty. Graduate student discussion group leaders will be graded.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 473.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 574 -- Aquatic Plants and the Environment  (4 units)
Description:  The role of riparian areas, estuaries, and constructed wetlands in the environment. Emphasis on plants as wildlife habitat for nutrient cycling and bioremediation. Graduate-level requirements include an additional research project and class presentation.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  SWES 574; SWES is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 474.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 575 -- Freshwater and Marine Algae  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of planktonic and benthic species; field techniques and lab culture. Graduate-level requirements include a special topic report on an aspect of freshwater algae.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $25.
Identical to:  SWES 575, WFSC 575.
May be convened with:  ECOL 475.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 578 -- Global Change  (3 units)
Description:  Analysis of the Earth system through an examination of its component parts (particularly climate and biogeochemistry) and their interactions with human activities, emphasizing information needed to understand modern and future environmental changes. Graduate level requirements include an in-depth written exercise and additional activities as described in the syllabus.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  GEOS 578; GEOS is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 478.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 579 -- Art of Scientific Discovery  (3 units)
Description:  Techniques of posing questions and solving puzzles encountered in scientific research, with emphasis on life sciences and mathematics. Graduate-level requirements include use of all techniques in a semester-long research project and final paper.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  CBA 579; CBA is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 479.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 581 -- Advanced Topics in Biological Statistics  (3 units)
Description:  Advanced topics in statistical methodology relevant to Biology, Genetics and Ecology. Maximum likelihood, General Linear models, randomization methods, power, distribution theory.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  basic course in statistics and/or matrix algebra.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 582 -- Ichthyology  (4 units)
Description:  Ecology, evolution and systematics of fishes, with field and lab emphasis on Gulf of California and Arizona fishes. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research project on a single aspect of the course topic.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $25.
Identical to:  WFSC 582.
May be convened with:  ECOL 482.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 583 -- Herpetology  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of the amphibians and reptiles. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth paper.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Identical to:  WFSC 583.
May be convened with:  ECOL 483.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 584 -- Ornithology  (4 units)
Description:  Natural history of birds and its bearing upon the problems of animal behavior, distribution, and evolution. Graduate-level requirements include an independent research project.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50.
Identical to:  WFSC 584.
May be convened with:  ECOL 484.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 585 -- Mammalogy  (4 units)
Description:  Systematics, ecology, and evolution of mammals. Graduate-level requirements include an exercise in mammalian taxonomy and a higher level of performance.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $125.
Identical to:  WFSC 585.
May be convened with:  ECOL 485.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 586 -- Biological Scaling  (2-3 units)
Description:  Evolution of body size and the scaling of physiological, morphological, and ecological requirements, biomechanics, functional morphology, and dimensional analysis.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 302.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 587L -- Animal Behavior Lab  (1 unit)
Description:  Exposure to current topics in behavior and process of behavioral research through video presentations, demonstrations of live animals and readings. Graduate-level requirements include organizing and leading of group discussion.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 487L.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 587R -- Animal Behavior  (3 units)
Description:  Concepts and principles of the mechanism, development, function and evolution of behavior, with emphasis on its adaptiveness. Graduate-level requirements include term paper involving hands-on research.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 487R.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 588 -- Arizona Mammals  (4 units)
Description:  The distribution, ecology, relative abundance, conservation, politics and management implications of the mammals of Arizona. Graduate-level requirements include an in-depth research paper.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  WFSC 588.
May be convened with:  ECOL 488.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 591 -- Preceptorship  (1-4 units)
Description:  Specialized work on an individual basis, consisting of instruction and practice in actual service in a department, program, or discipline. Teaching formats may include seminars, in-depth studies, laboratory work and patient study.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P F.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 595B -- Insect Biodiversity and Land Use in Sonora (Mexico)  (3 units)
Description:  Site: Guaymas Campus of the Monterey Technological University, Mexico. This course provides an introduction to (1) the natural history of Sonora and its desert ecosystem, (2) land use patterns and change in Sonora, (3) insect systematics and natural history, particularly of insect pests and pollinators, (4) field collecting methods and identification, (5) construction of biodiversity databases, and (6) biodiversity theory and analysis. Indices of insect biodiversity can provide important means of assessing ecosystem health and responses to anthropogenic landscape change. Analyses will be made of insect communities and biodiversity in urban, suburban, agricultural, and native habitats. Responses of insect populations to land use change can include outbreaks of insect pests and insect-vectored human and animal diseases, therefore special attention will be paid to insect pests and vectors.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 495B.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 596B -- Population Biology  (1 unit)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  open to majors only.
May be repeated:  for credit 6 times (maximum 7 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596C -- Biology of Symbiosis  (2 units)
Description:  We will survey new findings on intimate associations of microbes with marine and terrestrial animals, plants, and other microbes. Evolutionary, genetic, physiological and ecological aspects will be included. Course aims are (1) to synthesize recent data from different fields and (2) to identify holes in existing knowledge.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Graduate standing or consent of instructor.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596D -- Environmental Genomics  (2 units)
Description:  This predominately seminar-style graduate-level course will provide an overview of the emerging field of environmental genomics. The course is not comprehensive, but rather sets the stage for focused exploration of how genomic-enabled technologies can be used to study wild populations of microbes and viruses.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 553 and consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596E -- Concepts in Developmental Evolution  (3 units)
Description:  This course examines foundations of evolutionary developmental biology with the specific goal of integrating of classic concepts and approaches of ecological and population genetics with recent advances in developmental and molecular biology. The purpose of the class is to facilitate critical reexamination and discussion of the modern evolutionary synthesis and its role in guiding empirical studies in biology and to review novel conceptual approaches that explicitly integrate development into evolutionary studies.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 596J -- Plant Population Ecology  (1-3 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
May be repeated:  for a total of 18 units of credit.
May be convened with:  ECOL 496J.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596L -- Current Topics in Tropical Forest Ecology and Biogeochemistry  (2 units)
Description:  This graduate reading seminar will explore current questions in tropical forest ecology and biogeochemistry, including: why are tropical forests are so diverse? Do new datasets from a network of large forest plots support or contradict theories of scaling in vegetation? Are intact tropical forests sequestering carbon due to excess atmospheric CO2 and does this balance the losses from anthropogenic deforestation? Will Amazonian tropical forests suffer large-scale die-back as a consequence of future climate change, and does evidence from the past climate changes provide evidence about the future? The course is structured around weekly readings, and instructor and student presentations and discussion of the readings. A final paper, in the form of a written review of scholarly literature in a topic corresponding to each student’s presentation, is required.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 596M -- Exploring Life on the WWW: The Digital Dissemination of Biological Research  (3 units)
Description:  This course is designed for aspiring life scientists and science teachers. It will improve students' literacy in the areas of life science data management, information technology, and the effective exchange of scientific information across disciplines and professional cultures. Graduate-level requirements include an individual project and participation in a group project. Undergraduates will only have to participate in group projects.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  consent of instructor.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Identical to:  ENTO 596M; ENTO is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 496M.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596O -- Galapagos Marine Ecology  (1-6 units)
Description:  Galapagos Marine Ecology is a three-week summer course taught on the island of San Cristobal, Galapagos, Ecuador. Students conduct their own marine ecology research investigations under the guidance of the instructors, using the natural reef as a living “laboratory”. Students are introduced to the local history and culture of the people who live on San Cristobal and the environmental issues that predominate in this unique world heritage site. There is a required service component helping children from a local school with English language instruction. This course is designed to meet the needs of diverse audiences: K-12 teachers interested in incorporating the Galapagos into their classroom instruction, other interested graduate students, and upper division undergraduate students. Students enrolled for the first time will take the course for 3 units. Students may repeat the course up to 3 times for 1-6 units. Graduate-level requirements include the creation of a lesson plan for the classroom.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
May be convened with:  ECOL 496O.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 596R -- Species Diversity  (2 units)
Description:  The development and exchange of scholarly information, usually in a small group setting. The scope of work shall consist of research by course registrants, with the exchange of the results of such research through discussion, reports, and/or papers.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
May be convened with:  ECOL 496R.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596S -- Selected Topics for Science Educators  (1-2 units)
Description:  The course is structured as a seminar with discussion, lectures and activities for the K-12 classroom. The course is focused around a speaker series offered through the College of Science, which is focused on a different scientific theme each year. Class meets for three hours once per week in the evening. During the first hour, students participate in an activity for teaching science in a K-12 classroom or a presentation on a K-12 outreach opportunity at the UA. During the second hour, a weekly College of Science theme semester seminar is attended. The third hour of class, the seminar and its application to the classroom is discussed. Activities and discussion will focus on teaching science in high school or middle school. This course is structured for science teachers at the 6th-12th grade level, but K-12 teachers at all levels are invited to participate. Pre-service teachers who are not yet certified may take the course for undergraduate credit. Graduate-level requirements include writing a final paper on one of the semester's topics.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Practicing K-12 teachers and those with instructor permission may enroll at the Graduate level.
May be repeated:  for credit 6 times (maximum 7 enrollments).
Identical to:  GEOS 596S, GC 596S.
May be convened with:  ECOL 496S.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596U -- Molecular Phylogenetics  (2 units)
Description:  This course will cover (1) the theoretical and methodological aspects of inferring phylogeny from molecular data, and (2) the use of phylogenetic trees for investigating a wide variety of biological questions, with readings from the primary literature forming the basis of discussions.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Graduate standing or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  ENTO 596U, PL S 596U, RNR 596U.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 596W -- Special Topics in Ecology and Evolution A  (1-3 units)
Description:  This seminar will allow advanced graduate students to explore special topics in ecology and evolutionary biology. Topic will be determine each semester based on timeliness of issues and needs of advanced graduate students.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  contact department.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 596X -- Special Topics in Ecology and Evolution B  (1-3 units)
Description:  This seminar will allow advanced graduate students to explore special topics in ecology and evolutionary biology. Topic will be determined each semester based on timeliness of issues and needs of advanced graduate students.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Contact department.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 597B -- Phylogenetic Workshop  (2 units)
Description:  The workshop provides students with hands-on exposure to phylogenetics. The course will (1) lead students through the task of phylogeny inference, using the latest available computer software tools, covering practical issues in the process, and/or (2) lead students through the process of building their own software tools, so that they may create their own phylogenetic analyses. Some years both topics will be accommodated, in other years only one. Contact the instructor for the topics covered in any given year.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ENTO 465 or ENTO 565 or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  ENTO 597B; ENTO is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 597D -- Marine Biology at Rocky Point  (1 unit)
Description:  This is a course designed for secondary school science teachers. It is a field ecology course, offered over 3 days, at a field station located along the coast of the Northern Gulf of California near the town of Puerto Penasco (Rocky Point), Sonora, Mexico. Students are introduced to the diversity of marine intertidal organisms and the ecological principles they illustrate through a mixture of exploration on the reef, readings, and hands-on activities on reef ecology and intertidal zoology. Students are given opportunities to discuss ways to apply their learning in this course to their own classrooms, often located far from the ocean.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Open to Middle and High School Teachers.
Identical to:  BIOC 597D; BIOC is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 597G -- Grant Writing in the Biological Sciences  (3 units)
Description:  This course will focus on writing proposals for grants available to graduate students and post-docs, with specific focus on NSF's Doctoral Dissertation Improvement Grants (DDIG). Students will 1) become familiar with the NSF panel review system, 2) learn basic features of funded and non-funded grants, and 3) write, review, and critique each other's DDIG grants in time for the November submission deadline. This workshop will be primarily for students who are planning to submit a DDIG or applying for post-doctoral funding.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Typical structure:  1 hour individual studies, 2 hours workshop.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 597K -- Dendroecology  (3 units)
Description:  Dendroecology is the study of ecology through the use of the tree-ring record. Ecological variables in the tree-ring record, theory and techniques of dendrochronology, applications to forest ecology. Lectures, laboratory training, and a multi-day field trip including data collection. Graduate-level requirements include a brief paper on an applied problem in dendroecology and make a presentation to the class.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $50, for laboratory supplies and field trip expenses.
Course includes 1 or more field trips.
Typical structure:  3 hours laboratory, 2 hours lecture.
May be repeated:  for credit 2 times (maximum 3 enrollments).
Identical to:  GEOS 597K; GEOS is home department.
May be convened with:  ECOL 497K.
Usually offered:  Summer.

ECOL 599 -- Independent Study  (1-5 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work. Graduate students doing independent work which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P F.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 600A -- Fundamentals of Evolution  (3 units)
Description:  The fundamentals of modern Evolutionary Biology, including molecular evolution, phylogenetics, macroevolution, and population/quantitative genetics.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  graduate status in EEB or related department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 600B -- Fundamentals of Ecology  (3 units)
Description:  The fundamentals of modern Ecology, including behavioral ecology, population ecology, species interactions and community/ecosystem ecology.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  graduate status in EEB or related department.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring.

ECOL 603J -- Sustainability and Environmental Policy  (2-3 units)
Description:  Over the past twenty years “sustainability” (or “sustainable development”) has emerged as a central goal of environmental policy making. Contemporary tools of environmental policy including ecosystem management, adaptive management, and restoration have been displaced by what seems like a clearer goal that captures ends as well as means. Sustainability has moved from the work of scholars and activists to laws and administrative regulations. The language of sustainability has extended to the world of business and commerce.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Identical to:  LAW 603J; LAW is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 610A -- Research in Ecology and Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  Introduction to the research currently being pursued by faculty and staff in the department.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  open to majors only.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 610B -- Research in Ecology and Evolution  (1 unit)
Description:  Introduction to the research currently being pursued by faculty and staff in the department.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  open to majors only.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 610C -- Internship Presentation and Planning  (1 unit)
Description:  Required for first year doctoral students in Ecology. Consists of discussion and advisory sessions regarding development of research ideas. There will be 3 two hour group meetings, a planning meeting and two meetings for presentations of internships. Occasional group discussions of research ideas and methods. Coordinated by a rotating member of Ecol faculty.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Concurrent registration, ECOL 610A, ECOL 610B.
May be repeated:  for credit 1 time (maximum 2 enrollments).
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 619 -- Ecology of Savannas, Shrublands, and Woodlands  (3 units)
Description:  [Taught Spring semester in even-numbered years] The functional ecology and dynamics of biogeographically diverse savanna, shrubland and woodland ecosystems will be examined. Interactions among co-occurring life forms and growth forms will be emphasized with in the context of climate, soils and disturbance.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  Upper-division ecology course.
Identical to:  RA M 619; RA M is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 650 -- Algorithms for Computational Biology  (3 units)
Description:  Design and implementation of algorithms for computational problems in molecular biology. Topics include exact and approximate string matching, multiple sequence alignment, DNA sequence assembly, physical mapping of chromosomes, and genome rearrangement. No background in molecular biology is required.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
Special course fee required:  $15.
Prerequisite(s):  C SC 545 or consent of instructor.
Identical to:  C SC 650; C SC is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 670 -- Recent Advances in Genetics  (2 units)
Description:  Recent advances in the field of genetics.
Grading:  Regular grades are awarded for this course: A B C D E.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Identical to:  GENE 670; GENE is home department.
Usually offered:  Fall.

ECOL 696C -- Informatic and Comparative Analysis of Genomes  (1-3 units)
Description:  This course provides hands-on experience in the manipulation and analysis of genomic data and teaches the steps in the preparation of writing scientific manuscripts.
Grading:  Regular or alternative grades can be awarded for this course: A B C D E or S P C D E.
Prerequisite(s):  ECOL 553.
Typical structure:  1 hour seminar, 3 hours laboratory, 1 hour discussion.
May be repeated:  for credit 3 times (maximum 4 enrollments).
Identical to:  BIOC 696C; BIOC is home department.
Usually offered:  Spring.

ECOL 699 -- Independent Study  (1-5 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work. Graduate students doing independent work which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P F.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 799 -- Independent Study  (1-5 units)
Description:  Qualified students working on an individual basis with professors who have agreed to supervise such work. Graduate students doing independent work which cannot be classified as actual research will register for credit under course number 599, 699, or 799.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P F.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 900 -- Research  (1-8 units)
Description:  Individual research, not related to thesis or dissertation preparation, by graduate students.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P C D E K.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 910 -- Thesis  (1-8 units)
Description:  Research for the master's thesis (whether library research, laboratory or field observation or research, artistic creation, or thesis writing). Maximum total credit permitted varies with the major department.
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P E K.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 920 -- Dissertation  (1-9 units)
Description:  Research for the doctoral dissertation (whether library research, laboratory or field observation or research, artistic creation, or dissertation writing).
Grading:  Alternative grades are awarded for this course: S P E K.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

ECOL 930 -- Supplementary Registration  (1-9 units)
Description:  For students who have completed all course requirements for their advanced degree programs. May be used concurrently with other enrollments to bring to total number of units to the required minimum.
Grading:  Grade of K is awarded for this course except for the final term.
May be repeated:  an unlimited number of times, consult your department for details and possible restrictions.
Usually offered:  Fall, Spring, Summer.

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